I would like you to have a look at all or any of the attached three articles. Yes I know they are quite complex but they are good.

Have a go at the Nye and the Eurosecurity stuff but...

with the 'reading for Cybersecurity ...' piece you can leave out the section :
Securing Core Systems of Internet Governanceó Routing, Addressing, and the DNS. The key thing is get the feel for the dimensions of this arena of cybersecurity
Points to note so as to get your head round it:
a) The Internet is governed by US-based organisations (ICANN/IANA) 
The DNS is maintained by the lawful organisation and any changes have to be approved by an international committee. Who controls the net is a forum for much argument and squabbling. Many regimes feel that the U has too much influence over the net and how it operates.

b) The net has a physical presence - there are computers, undersea cables, buildings that house the equipment

c) and it has a virtual presence - the software: the code (protocols, algorithms - the rules) that cause processes to occur - just as word change leads to change in meanings which lead to varying outcomes/actions. For instance, if I recode my sentence addressed to you by changing my command from walk to run then (hopefully) there will be faster movement. Re-coding changes the events, their sequences (recode: 'Process A then B... TO... B then A) and structure of the world.

d) The Internet is organised by a DNS - a domain name system; Any communication I send needs to be sent to an address. - no address, no communication. So each node in a computer network needs a domain name (an identifier) AND the DNS is hierarchical: Top Level (the 'ROOT') downwards e.g. XXX.UK; YYY.Fr etc etc to distinguish country level coding. At other levels of the hierarchy you have .com; .ac etc...just as in an address you will have a hierarchy starting wtih the street/house number AND then the town, then the county, then the country ....



Further reading:
some articles to follow up last Monday's session and to provide empirical stuff for next monday's session.
https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2007/RAND_RP223.pdf

Here is a link to the first notable piece (1993) on the concept of Cyberwar by the two leading thinkers about this stuff: Ronfeldt and Arquilla.

Worth checking out, but remember this was written almost a quarter of century ago now, so one of the matters when reading is a) to put it into its historical context and then b) to assess the degree to which it is still relevant.


https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/11/russia-waging-information-war-in-sweden-study-finds

and this one: Ukraine power cut 'was cyber-attack'

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jan/17/governments-struggling-to-retain-trust-of-citizens-global-survey-finds
Will this be the the most dangerous 'cyberwar' in the end - between government who cannot respond effctively to 'social media' mediated demands (overload) and citizens (wants/expectations cos they can make demands via social media and create a head of steam)? Given we were talking about 'cybernetics' as project of the control of the flow of information and cyber-wars/security as the struggles for the (de-) stabilisation of messages/information, note that, these two articles explore that process in two different ways - a) as a kind of propaganda from Russia to the Swedish populace and b) as a direct attack on Ukrainian technical infrastructure.



Try this vid: Zero Day:

Documentary thriller about warfare in a world without rules - the world of cyberwar. It tells the story of Stuxnet, self-replicating computer malware, known as a 'worm' for its ability to burrow from computer to computer on its own. In a covert operation, the American and Israeli intelligence agencies allegedly unleashed Stuxnet to destroy a key part of an Iranian nuclear facility. Ultimately the 'worm' spread beyond its intended target.

Zero Day is the most comprehensive account to date of how a clandestine mission opened forever the Pandora's box of cyber warfare. A cautionary tale of technology, politics, unintended consequences, morality, and the dangers of secrecy.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0X0Teo5AxQM