here are some papers and so forth that will help us to address Monday's topic of British and French Colonialism and strategies of de-colonisation

I have starred the pieces I woud particularly encourage you to read, and then there is a bunch of other readings which can also help with any essay you write.

Best wishes, and hope thing are going well for all of you.



"In sum, it should remain our aim to maintain our authority in each territory until a transfer of power can be shown to be generally desired by its people and they have shown that they can live at peace with one another and are capable of sustaining independent status with a reasonable standard of government. In most of the smaller territories there is at present no widespread desire to escape from ultimate dependence on the United Kingdom...Any premature withdrawal of authority by the United Kingdom would seem bound to add to the areas of stress and discontent in the world. There are territories over which jurisdiction might be surrendered without prejudice to the essentials of strategy or foreign relations, and at some modest savings to the Exchequer. But would we stand to gain by thus rewarding loyalty to the Crown which is an enduring characteristic of so many Colonial peoples? The United Kingdom has been too long connected with its Colonial possessions to sever ties abruptly without creating a bewilderment which would be discreditable and dangerous."

 from: CAB 134/1556, CPC (57)30; 6 Sept 1957 ‘Future constitutional development in the colonies’: memorandum for Cabinet Colonial Policy Committee by Sir Norman Brook


I have attached some basic info/data on the Chronology of African independence and also of African leaders at 1960

Readings: note stars for relevance and to some extent (though this is my estimation of course) of quality

A you may note some pieces are attached and other sut click on the link)

Try starting with John Darwin's short piece on British De-colonisation

***then with my ''useful summary of Fench Colonial Policy" pdf (attached)

***Michael Crowder: On French and British Indirect Rule

*** Tony Chafer piece (attached on French assimalationism - conclusion of his book on the subject.)

**Shodhganga on Assimilationism as parent/child relationship   read up to s. 6.6 - which from there on is not relevant.
Quite a nice chapter that is pretty clear about the nature of French assimlations and imperial rule

*and worth your while though dated is  Read pp. 1-18 (Introduction). This is on French Aid by an activist, Teresa Hayter in 1966

***  Ibhawoh paper is a really interesting read that explores the uses of propaganda in independence capaigns. And note the stuff on the Atlantic Charter

and rifiing off the Ibhawoh paper, you could look at the (attached) 'Summary of Coffey's Ph.D.' thesis on the British press and Decolonisation...or read the whole of it of course.

 British Labour Party piece (attached) - and it is important to get to grips wth an assessment of the degree to whichthe Labour party as an avowedly anti-mperialist socialist party really dealt with (de-) colonialisation. This piece suggest that ideological party was not foremost in the LP mind.

David Gardinier's piece on Gabon (attached) is short and useful for comparison
and this O'Sullivan piece for comparative stuff on
Ghana 1957:   'The Wind of Change': Decolonisation in British West Africa. Author(s): Kevin O'Sullivan  

**This is very good as it opens up questions about how the history of decolonistion has been written:    Chapter 1 on Hisoriography of De-colonisation - good discussion of how various historicans and political scientists et al have evaluated explanations of the de-colonisation process. Slightly long piece.

Oyabebefa on linguistic consequences of French assimilationism (not a key piece but an interesting take on the issue of assimlationism.)

** Goldberg's 'Decolonisation and Political Socialisation & West Africa' piece (attached) identifies factors of the de-colonsation process that are given real-world political consideration in the Cabinet material immediately below. Easy gentle rather standard view of matter but certainly worth a trot down the road for you.

The below is taken from a massive volume of British cabinet documents in the late 50s at the height of decolonisation. It no only has a long and excellent Introduction to the volume but the piece I have identified below make good rading if you remember these are 'real-time' documents and discussion papers shuttling between senior civil servants and Ministers

***  Introduction and pp.43; 51; (3 stars because this is the record - from the horse's mouth as it were -  of discusssion by Cabinet and the most senior civil servants) but reading this stuff may be a bit of a slog!!!

p.109 - 137 : CAB 134/1353, AF 1(59)14 Jan 1959;‘The next ten years in Africa’: minutes of Africa (Official) Committee meeting to discuss procedure for study: "In discussion of the United Kingdom’s political interests, it was suggested that these might be defined as the maintenance of stability and of a pro-Western outlook in African territories. It was probable however that over a large part of the continent a pro-Western outlook
would be too much to hope for and we might have to accept neutrality of the kind now practised by

This is a fascinating set of papers initiated by the Africa Committee chared by Burke Trend (top Civil Servant soon to Cabinet Secretary) and then evaluated by various relevant Ministers from the PM (Macmillan downwards via Philip de Zulueta (Private Secretary to the PM) - and see his remarks about the'Africa the next ten years review: (note the the downbeat tone on the decline of British power and influence.

"...this is not a very good paper. It is permeated by the unimaginative spirit of  colonial administration in decadence. I am afraid that it will only result in wrong policies being adopted, or at best, in no policy.  The analysis of the African historical scene is adequate although much too long, and the analysis of the present day is politically and economically quite good. There is, however no attempt at all to compare the progress and success of the different colonial policies adopted by the European powers. For example, is the Congo system going, in the end, to give better results than that in Portuguese East Africa? Why have the French managed to produce a higher type of politician than we have? Is the French system of breaking down the tribal areas and superimposing their own administration more satisfactory than our method? These questions may seem academic, but Africa is one of the few parts of the world in which we still have the power to influence events, at least to some extent." (p.134) (Philip de Zulueta)

But note the sophisticated analysis of the Angloa-African situation that takes into account a very wide range of maters to do with the balances of internaional power, moral, economic, and political obligations and the problems of defence policy and the Cold War. The Senior civil servants of the period might have studied classics at
Oxford or Cambridge but they were no slouches when it came to thinking and understanding about global political economy!