IRD 3025 – The Sixties – Radicalism and Counter-Culture.        2017-18

Lecture/Seminar – Tuesdays - 2 hours from 1pm to 3 pm in C 328




 Sixties resource page. So…

Look Here



“The Swinging  Sixties beats all comers when it comes to triggering vicarious nostalgia…it’s the absence of revivalism and nostalgia during the sixties itself that partly accounts for why there has been endless sixties revivals ever since. Part of the attraction of the Sixties is its’ spirit of total immersion in the present. This was the decade that coined the slogan ‘be here now!’…” (Simon Reynolds, Retromania, p. xxix)



“We are all drawn into social phantasy systems…The loss of one’s own perceptions and evaluations, which comes with occupying a false position (doubly false in that one does not see that it is false), is only realised retrospectively…The person in a doubly false position feels ‘real’; without feeling numb he is numbed by this very feeling of ‘reality’. To shake one’s self out of the false sense of reality entails a derealisation of what one takes to be unreality. Only then is one able to apperceive the social phantasy system in which one is…We are so ill that we no longer feel ill. We are mad, but have no insight.” (Laing, R.D.; 1961, Self and Others, p. 38)


Lecture topics



details of assessed work



Year by Year chronology of Events for Britain 1950-69



Amazing collection of images of 60s people and events – just look through them; get a feel for the image, the look of the time…






ANYWAYIn this module we will try to explore the contours of ideas and images we hold about the period loosely called ‘The Sixties’. That we can even plausibly offer a course with this title suggests that this period is in some way more than merely a passage of time running from 1960 – 1970. The name seems to point to things of substance that demand our attention in a way talking about the ‘eighties’ or the ‘nineties’ does not. If this is so, why?


We will take as our starting premise that the 60s was a time of radicalism and counter-culture – a time of socio-cultural change which attempted a re-configuration of the public sphere and civil society in Britain and America and, more generally, ‘Western’ states.


Perhaps we could characterise ‘the 60s thing’ as an incitement to disorderly conduct. That is to say, set against the expectations and prevailing values, the plethora of ideas, events, ‘happenings’, images, artefacts emerging in the 60s that symbolised or actually were a challenge to orthodoxies. Arguably it was both a weakness and strength of all this is that it was diffuse. It lacked a unity of purpose. While ‘the 60s thing’ attacked on many fronts and was thereby difficult to contain, equally each element of it tended to have its’ own time of existence often lacking support from other elements by which to create a lasting impact. So many of the phenomena of the 60s blew themselves out in the initial excitement of the moment. Others stayed, and yet others were revived and re-packaged – ‘retro’. The critic, Terry Eagleton has referred to some things being ‘big, baggy monsters’ and this is a very appropriate way of describing the 60s phenomenon. Despite this, my feeling is that ‘the 60s’ was not just a just a shapeless bag into which any detritus marked ‘happened in the 60s’ could be thrown. Rather, it had some shape fashioned out of a process of elective affinities: things which have a difficult- to-specify sense of connection to other things (‘being drawn to each other’).


Elective Affinities: the idea of such a connection goes back to the Greeks but the actual term ‘affinity’ is to be found in the language of alchemy in the middle ages (13th – 14th centuries). Only in the science and the literature (Goethe) of the 18th century do we get the term ‘elective affinity’. It is with Max Weber (1864-1920), and later Karl Mannheim, that it  gets used in the sociology of culture. In his ‘Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism’ Weber refers to ‘investigating whether and at what points certain correlations (‘Wahlverwandtschaften’ = Elective affinities) between religious beliefs and practical ethics can be worked out.’ (see Michael Löwy’s study of Jewish libertarian thought: Redemption and Utopia (1992, chp. 1)


Drawing the threads together then, what I propose to do is to analyse the 60s thing as the emergent cultural, social, political, moral forces which either harmonise (elective affinities) or are contradictory. What meanings, shape, order can we pick out of the maelstrom of things that seem to resonate with a feeling of the 60s…and WHY?


We need then to attend to the material culture of the times as well as the history, historiography, and contemporary as well as subsequent analysis.


By the 60s I take the long view, that is to say, that the 60s lasted 20 years from 1955 – 1975 and that the kinds of feelings, attitudes and ‘doings’ which are widely recognised as being ‘very 60s’ find their roots in the middle 50s and become more extreme in the middle 70s. Thus we must get a good grip on that forgotten decade: the 50s. Of course, we need to be aware of the terms of the post-war settlement which many argue set the conditions for the emergence of the 60s. Equally we must be sensitive to the flows of events between the official and the underground – where what was unorthodox, was being absorbed into parts of mainstream culture, especially in the 70s.


With all this in mind, I intend in the lectures and seminars to talk about and discuss a selection of the most representative items from the 60s, setting them in ideological, historical, cultural etc. contexts so as to see what happened, why, and with what effect. The selection itself is filtered through what perhaps by common consent is said to be the overall characteristics of the 60s when we use that glib phrase ‘the 60s’, namely:



 challenges to mainstream culture and morality;


student and youth movements;


counter-cultural philosophies and aesthetics;


popular culture into pop culture.





Want to go to: 60s Resources or to:






Books to read and buy: Dominic Sandbrook: Here are links to Amazon where they are up to 60% discounted or buy them used. (and see also the link on the Amazon page to Sandbrook talking about ‘Never Had it so Good’)


1)    Never Had it So Good 1956-63

2)    White Heat 1964 -70

3)    State of Emergency 1970-74

1)    London calling’ by Barry Miles

2)    ‘In the Seventies’ by Barry Miles

3)    ‘Young hearts Run Free’ by Dave Haslam

4)    ‘There’s a riot going on’ by Pete Doggett

5)    Austerity Britain, 1945-1951 by David Kynaston.

6)    Family Britain 1951-57 by David Kynaston

10 Having it So Good by Peter Hennessey (Penguin)


These are ten enormously readable and compendious volumes on the Sixties. I would encourage you all to buy the Sandbrook volumes, Barry Miles’s ‘London Calling’ and the Jonathan Green book (see below).


The first two Sandbrook volumes are outstanding to read. Nice journalistic style with lots of information. The one on the period 70-74 is however, for my money, a bit wilfull and ec-centic (i.e. a bit off the centre)


Barry Miles or ‘Miles’ as he was widely known in the 60s was ‘there’ – he knew everybody in the counter-culture of the 60s especially in Britain. He with Paul McCartney started THE psychedelic head-shop in Southampton Row, London: ‘Indica’. But..he kept his head together and went on to write some of the most enjoyable books on the period and write some excellent biographies of the US Beat Generation poets/writers: Keroucac, Ginsberg, Burroughs… His ‘London Calling’ is a history of the passing from Bohemian London of the 50s to psychedelic counter-culture London of the 60s.


The Dave Haslam volume is a lovely memoir/reflection on the pop culture and street culture of the early 1970s.


Pete Doggett’s work is a little sprawling but full of stories and thoughts on the links between radical music, art and politics of the 60s into the early 70s. It is good on the US as well as the UK.


The Kynaston volumes, though very different in tone from the others, are a fascinating set of stories and analyses of life in post-war Britain between 1945–1960. He has drawn upon the famous ‘Mass Observation’ archive at the University of Sussex. ‘Mass Observation’ was perhaps the first organised attempt to take notice of and analyse public opinion on all kinds of everyday events and habits and routines – what people thought of TV, food, price of goods in the shops, life in Britain…. The work of this group led by Charles Madge collected all kinds of data and interviews from the late 1930s until well into the 50s, so their efforts gave Kynaston a wonderful set of pictures of British people and their lives from which to work.


Peter Hennessey, a former ‘Times’ journalist is, for that very reason, always readable. But…he specialises on matters of post-war British history and politics so, although his book on the Fifties is good, his use of stuff on social and cultural changes in Britain in the 50s is hesitant and uneven.



 Also see this list of books on 60s counter-culture



Also there is Jonathon Green’s: All Dressed Up, Pimlico press. This is a great read by someone who knew everyone who was anyone in the 60s. (and see also his ‘Days in the Life’ book) I used to insist students bought this book, but I think for the purposes of this module it has been superseded by Sandbrook. However it is shorter, very fluent and concentrates more (and is better than) Sandbrook on hippy happenings and later 60s cultural as opposed to political and social stuff for which Sandbrook (and Hennessy) is better. Austerity Britain and Family Britain are wonderful ‘Mass Observation’ archive derive accounts of ordinary peoples lives between 1945-51  and are certainly worth dipping into, if not reading.



Arthur Marwick:    The Sixties.  Oxford UP. (very solid detailed piece of work)

There are many remaindered copies of this floating around in bookshops like ‘The Works’.


Read a good general history of the post-war period in Britain. There are many post war histories but I still think Morgan is the most wide-ranging and readable.



1) Kenneth Morgan,     The People’s Peace, Oxford UP. This is best for our purposes. (Wide-ranging and easy to read)

but for well-discussed clear political history Sked and Cook is a bit of a student classic:


2) Sked and Cook,       Post-War Britain  Penguin (good, but a bit dated and too narrowly political -  copies in library anyway)



Also a short useful book on post-war culture: Arthur Marwick – Culture in Britain since 1945.


Marwick’s: The Arts in the West since 1945 is useful. 

There is also Marwick and Plumb’s: British Society Since 1945, but I’ve never read it. It will be pretty good; these two are really distinguished historians.


Excellent on the weird cultural happenings of the 1960s/1970s is Robert Hewison’s: Too Much.  Oxford UP. (Out of print/difficult to get hold of)

Indeed any of Hewison’s histories of the post-war period usually make for straight-forward reading whilst being very informative.






there is Joe Boyd’s account of running a leading hippy/prog rock label – he produced Nick Drake (the ‘genius’ everyone has to talk about today). Boyd’s book is called White Bicycles: Here is Joe Boyd giving a talk on the music of the psychedelic period of the 60s


There are lot of books coming out on Progressive Rock these days as it is sort of back in fashion as a retro-thing. Sadly I was a fan in the early-mid 70s so would encourage you to tune into not only the most famous bands such as YES, Genesis, and Pink Floyd, but also Gentle Giant, Jade Warrior, and the very great Van der Graaf Generator (and their lead vocalist/keyboards: Peter Hammill) See also the jazz-rock outfits such as Soft Machine, Nucleus, Henry Cow, and Frank Zappa. Don’t forget the ‘Kraut Rock’ bands such as Ash Ra Tempel, Can, Amon Duul, Faust, Agitation Free, Tangerine Dream. Also prog-folk from Fairport Convention, Amazing Blondel, Gryphon, and Steeleye Span onwards. Certainly the ultimate hippy band: the Incredible String band. ALSO check out the famous ‘Canterbury’ bands such as Khan, Egg, Gong, Tim Blake, Hatfield and the North, Steve Hillage (now comprising techno/ambient outfit: System 7 with Miquette Giraudy), Daevid Allen, Kevin Ayers, Soft Machine - listen to their classic in a live performance in 1969 (b/w)  ‘Moon in June’. (Robert Wyatt is on drums, Hugh Hopper on Bass, and Mike Ratledge on keyboards)…  and for many the classic ‘Canterbury’ band:  Caravan …. To listen to this music go to Cuneiform Records and also for a lot of details on the Softs and other Canterbury bands. Perhaps the key bands are Soft Machine and Gong as so many ‘Canterbury bands people’ were in one or both of them at some time and indeed hung out together in Deja (Majorca) in a hippie commune in the 60s or similar in France.



In fact the Calyx website is a great resource for all kinds of prog rock, jazz rock etc info and sounds – use it.



And then search out the great US west coast psychedelic bands of  the 60s: Jefferson Airplane; Grateful Dead; Big Brother and the Holding Company; apart from Dylan and the Velvets.


Jazz – so important: read about and listen to Miles Davis; John Coltrane, McCoy Tyner, Weather Report, Mahavishnu Orchestra, Sun Ra, Ornette Coleman and in the UK in the Sixties watch the vids/DVD in library called Jazz Britannica and look up people like: Stan Tracey, Mike Westbrook, Mike Gibbs, John Surman, Keith Tippett, Jon Hiseman and Colosseum, Ian Carr and Nucleus, Norma Winstone, Graham Collier, Ronnie Scott, Bob Downes, Elton Dean.


Try Prog Archive for a huge resource of all kinds of 60s/prog Rock stuff – and there is lots of streamed music to listen to.




Want to go to: 60s Resources?




Mick Farren’s (some time leading NME rock journo) account of his time in the 60s has come out in paperback quite cheaply (£10 I think). It is called: Give the Anarchist a Cigarette.


Also other recent autobiographies which can often be found remaindered or second-hand which are well-worth reading see:


Sheila Rowbotham (very good on a girl/woman growing up from A-levels to University via Paris in the ‘existentialist late 50s/early 60s’ and into the heady politico-counter-cultural era of the late 60s. She was torn between being political and being ‘hippie’)


Richard Neville’s: Hippie Hippie Shake.




Novels: there have been many novels written that deal with life in the 50s and 60s. Especially worth reading are:


A.S. Byatt – The Frederica Quartet, comprising, The Virgin in the Garden, Still Life (both deal with Frederica growing up in the 1950s/early 1960s), A Whistling Woman, and Babel Tower. You see through a wide cast of characters how the norms of the 50s transform into the counter-cultural ideas of the 60/70s, and equally how the 60s/70s transforms the various characters.


Colin MacInnes: ‘Absolute Beginners’ (much later made into a film by Julian Temple of The Great Rock and Roll Swindle fame, with the eponymous Bowie song) and also ‘City of Spades’. Fairly short novels that deal with London in the ‘melting pot’ 1950s. (Spade refers to West Indian immigrants) The novels deal beautifully and sympathetically with race relations, jazz, the shock of defeated hopes for coming to the ‘mother country’ and so forth.


Michael Moorcock: The Cornelius Quartet (this) comprising: The Final Programme, A Cure for Cancer, The English Assassin, The Condition of Muzak. These are strange novels – somewhere between sci-fi and fantasy, they trace the magical time warps of the psychedelic criminal/saviour Jerry Cornelius in a kind of 60s London and elsewhere. A sort of psychedelic Doctor Who with elements of the Avengers and Adam Adamant (if any of you remember him).


Comic ‘university’ or ‘campus’ novels have been a popular genre. The most noted practitioners of this have been Kingsley Amis with his ‘Lucky Jim’, David Lodge – ‘The  British Museum is falling down’ and ‘Changing Places’ (1975), and most enjoyably Malcolm Bradbury with his ‘Eating People is Wrong’ (1959), his US-based campus novel, Stepping Westward’ (1965), and the classic portrait of the radical atmosphere of 1970s British university life, ‘The History Man’ (1972) (adapted by the BBC). Inasmuch as 1950s/60s ‘campus’ novels often dealt with the ‘’new’ universities (i.e. not Oxbridge or London) they were linked to the ‘new’ novel that took a look at ‘provincial life’ rather than ‘cosmopolitan life’ that had been so much written about by inter-war novelists such as Evelyn Waugh (e.g. Decline and Fall, 1928). Noted among the first ‘provincial’ novel – that also has a slight campus aspect not a million miles aways from Leicester, is John Wain’s 1953, Hurry On Down’.


There are of course the Beat Generation writers in 1950s/60s America, notably Jack Kerouac – the author of the classic: ‘On the Road’ and also ‘Desolation Angels’ and ‘Dharma Bums’. Associated with him is William Burroughs whose novels, (Naked Lunch; Soft Machine) are filled with metaphors of the destruction of the ‘soft machine’ – the body by the machines of heroin and the terror mechanisms of modern government. Make links to the poetry of Allen Ginsburg and to the Zen poetry of Gary Snyder. Another wonderful and delicate very hippie writer who is now largely forgotten is Richard Brautigan. Try to find his ‘Trout Fishing in America’, ‘The Revenge of the Lawn’, ‘A Confederate General from the  Big Sur’, ‘The abortion – an historical romance’, ‘Willard and his Bowling Trophies’, or ‘Sombrero Fallout’. Jarvis Cocker gave a talk on BBC R4 (Sept 2012) on Brautigan.


Existential/historical crisis novels: there are novels which inspired young people to challenge and reflect on the state of society – what some have called the existential imagination that raises the question of what it is to live an ‘authentic’ form of life. Novels  that have portrayed the inner and aesthetic struggle to exist fully rather than unquestioningly as part of capitalist-consumerist society are: Sartre’s ‘Nausea’ and his ‘Roads to Freedom’ trilogy comprising ‘The Age of Reason, (1945), ‘The Reprieve’ (1947) and ‘Iron in the Soul’ (1949); and very importantly Herman Hesse’s very psychedelic ‘Steppenwolf’ (1927) and also Narziss and Goldmund (1959). Also look at Franz Kafka’s ‘The Trial’ and ‘America’.


Curiously, the angst of the cold war period is often well-captured in spy novels and I would note John Le Carre’s ‘Call for the Dead’. Also check out Len Deighton and of course Ian Fleming’s, James Bond novels.




There are various biographies, but for the 50s you might like to try the disgusting and funny biog of George Melly – Owning Up (1965). Melly was a jazz singer and the biog tells tales of life on the road and in London that do not suggest the 50s were polite and without sex, drugs or fun. (see also video/DVD of Melly’s progs about the ‘jazz culture’ 1950s: ‘Soho Boho’ and ‘Smoky Dives’)


For a picture of the cultural life of the high aristocratic ‘beautiful people’ (e.g. Lady Antonia Fraser, Cecil Beaton et al.) in 1960s London among the movers and shakers in the arts and high society see Roy Strong’s Diaries.




Politics: (you may not like it, but you gotta know some)

Auto/Biographies and Diaries of the leading politicians in the 50s and 60s, especially the Prime Ministers: Eden, 1955-57; Harold Macmillan, 1957-1963; Alec Douglas-Home (pronounced ‘Hume’) 1963-64; Harold Wilson 1964-1970 and ’74-’76, Edward Heath, 1970-74. For my money the Macmillan Diaries are very good for the 50s and Wilson’s ‘The Labour Government 1964-1970 for the 60s. Tony Benn did some first rate diaries for the 50s, 60s and 70s. Richard Crossman’s diaries are entertaining and very self-serving. Barbara Castle’s diaries are ok to good. Sadly, leading Conservative politician’s diaries and auto-biographies are often rather poor as they avoid getting into the meat of political life and prefer to talk about their lives in general…which is a bit frustrating. But there are good biographies of Conservative prime ministers though – David Thorpe’s studies of Anthony Eden (PM 1955-57), Harold Macmillan (PM 1957-63) and of Alec Douglas-Home (PM 1963-64) are outstanding.


 link to British Prime Ministers, BUT See my note below where I talk about politics books to read etc.


Prime Ministers of Britain: For the duration of the war Britain was governed by a coalition Cabinet of Conservative and Labour ministers. The PM from 1940-45 was Winston Churchill. In 1945 against expectation, Labour led by Clement Attlee won a landslide majority over Churchill’s Conservative party. But at the 1950 election Attlee and Labour only just squeaked home with a majority of 8 seats. There was another election in 1951 and the Conservatives under an increasingly ill Churchill became the government. Anthony Eden led the Conservatives to victory in 1955 but Eden resigned (in 1957) over the 1956 Suez crisis and his position as Conservative Prime Minister and leader of the Conservative Party was taken over by Harold Macmillan in 1957. Macmillan led the conservatives to an even bigger victory at the 1959 election but Macmillan resigned in 1963 after a series of scandals, not least ‘the Profumo Scandal’, and a mistaken belief that he was terminally ill. After a rather confusing ‘battle’ for leadership of the Conservative party after Macmillan, Douglas-Home (pronounced ‘Hume’) emerged as leader. However the Wilson-led  Labour party gained a narrow win over the Conservatives led by Alec Douglas-Home at the General Election of 1964 and increased their majority over the now Edward Heath-led Conservative party at the 1966 election. Wilson and Labour were unexpectedly defeated at the General Election in June 1970 by the Heath-led Conservative party. Thus Wilson was PM from 1964-1970, and Edward Heath from 1970-74. Wilson was back as PM in 1974-76 and resigned March 1976 leaving Wilson’s most senior colleague, James Callaghan to take over as PM and Labour Party leader until Labour under Callaghan were defeated at the 1979 election by a Conservative party led by Margaret Thatcher.



There are two Houses of Parliament: a) an elected House of Commons consisting of MPs and b) an appointed House of Lords. You cannot belong to both at the same time. As part of the legislative process, proposals for laws (known as ‘Bills’) are debated and often voted on in both Houses. The governing party – the government of the day – (who normally command a majority in the House of Commons) because of their majority expect to win votes on bills in the Commons. But if they have a very small majority and one or two of their number are away, ill etc the government can lose important votes in the House and can see their proposals for law defeated by the opposition – i.e. by all the MPs not in the governing party. When it is anticipated that a vote will be very tight, the whips – MPs appointed by their party to make sure the party’s MPs all vote the way the party leadership wants them to – will work hard to ensure all their MPs vote even if it means forcing sometimes very ill MPs to come to the House to vote.


a)     how a law is made from a Draft BILL to a BILL to an ACT

b)     the work of the 2 Houses of Parliament – i) Lords and ii) Commons (House of Commons is where an MP sit)



MPs are elected to the House of Commons for a constituency (it used to be called ‘a division’) – 1 MP per constituency. The UK is divided into over 600 constituencies - -their number changes every few years to reflect population shifts. At the moment there are 650 MP and thus 650 constituencies spread across England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.


Remember, it is usually the case (though not always i.e. Feb 1974) that a PM (who is almost always the leader of his Political Party), will only become PM, and his party the governing party (i.e. the government), if the win a majority of seats in the House of Commons. Thus if the Commons is comprised of 650 MPs, to gain a majority either the Cons or the Labour party must have at least 326 seats (50% + 1 seat). If they drop below this, but still form the government under invitation from the monarch, them we call that government a minority government…but it is not usually long before the minority government are forced to hold another general election to try to gain absolute majority on the House (i.e. Wilson/Labour govt in October 1974). Even if they gain a majority, if it is very small e.g. Labour in 1950 and in 1964 again it is not long before they dissolve Parliament and hold another election to try to increase their majority. So given that there are 650 MPs today, a political party would need 325 +1 (i.e. 326) MPs to have a bare majority in the Commons.


·  1979 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1974, October, general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1974, February, general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1970 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1966 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1964 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1959 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1955 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1951 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1950 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results

·  1945 general election, full results by constituency, including a statistical breakdown of the results



For material on the far left and the far right see John Callaghan’s ‘The Far Left in British Politics’, Martin Walker’s ‘The National Front’ and Francis Beckett’s ‘The Rise and fall of the Communist Party’.



For an astonishingly wide ranging and very readable history of the main strands of intellectual life in Britain in the 1950s and 60s, read Perry Anderson’s essay ‘A Culture in Contra-flow’ in his collection, ‘English Questions’ (Verso press.).



Also in the Library: 

Collier/Horowitz         Destructive Generation, £9, Free Press

Davidson, E                Reflections on a disruptive decade, £18, Missouri UP

Farber, D.                   The Sixties, £15.95, Carolina UP

Farren, M                   Give the Anarchist a cigarette, £10, Pimlico

Kaiser. C                    1968 In America, £8, Grove Press

Kimball, R.                 The Long March, £14, Encounter

Morrison, J.               From Camelot to Kent State, £12.50, Oxford UP

Neville, R.                  Hippie Hippie Shake  £13.99 Bloomsbury




Want to go to: 60s Resources?



Soc 3025 Assessment:  

1 x 2000-2500 word essay. Hand in:  20th April, 2018

1 group presentation.  Dates: 24th April 2018.

1 individual report based on group presentation. Hand-in: 1st May 2018.



Resubmission of Coursework.

If you do not do assessed work on time, there will be penalties imposed for late submissions i.e. max mark of: D-

If you do not get work done on time, come to see in the first instance.

CAF Assessment regulations and resubmission dates

Please note the following important information regarding the submission of assessments:


Resubmission dates for all pieces of assessed work

You need to achieve a mark of D- or above to pass each item of assessment.

When you re-sit an assignment your grade is capped at D-.


Re-sit timetable 2017-18

Re-sit deadline

If submission date after 28th February

8th July 2018




All written assessments should be handed submitted to Turnitin by the assessment deadline.


Referral and Deferral

Referred assessments are those where a student is permitted to retake assessment for the module as a second attempt following initial failure (F+ or below). In these circumstances, the maximum grade is D-.

Deferred assessments are those where a student is permitted to take assessment for the module at a later opportunity, for example as a result of a decision by the mitigating circumstances panel. In these circumstances, there is no constraint on the grade.



Extensions are given at the discretion of tutors and evidence is likely to be required for requests. Extensions must be requested at least two days before the assessment deadline and can only be given for a maximum of two weeks.


Late submission

Assessments submitted after the deadline, where an extension has not been agreed, are subject to the following penalties:

1        Submitted within one week of the deadline – maximum grade of D-

2        Submitted later than one week of the deadline – referred (i.e. ‘failed’).


Referred assessments

Any item of assessment which has been referred either as graded below a D- on the first attempt, submitted more than one week after the deadline, or not submitted at all may be ‘replaced’ by an alternative assessment with new deadlines (see above), but with a maximum grade of D-. Extensions may be granted to referred assessments (based on the usual extension rules, see above); but late submission without extensions of referred assessments will be graded G


Deferred assessments

Any item of assessment which has been deferred e.g. due to mitigating circumstances (which you have to apply for and be granted by the University) is an assessment with new deadlines with no constraint on the grade.




As you are final year students, not handing in work on time is an unbelievably bad idea, as you may fail to complete your degree until later.




Want to go to: 60s Resources?





The essay questions are as follows:


Soc3025 – Sixties: radicalism and counter-culture.  Essay Questions. To be handed in by 20th  April, 2018.


You may develop your own question if you wish, but talk to me about it first.


1) How can historiography help us to analyse the period known as the Sixties?


2) “never had it so good…” (Macmillan, 1957)  Was the period 1955-1965 a time of economic, social and cultural stability in Britain?


3) ‘Beatniks, poetry, modern jazz, outsiders…’ To what extent did a cultural revolution start in the late fifties in the UK and/or the USA?


4) Did the ‘Swinging Sixties’ have any identifiable shape beyond media hype?


5) Why did satire boom and bust?


6) Was Hugh Carleton-Greene responsible for a cultural and moral decline in the Sixties in Britain (as Mary Whitehouse seemed to suggest)?


7) Did Herbert Marcuse and/or the New Left ‘cause’ the Sixties in the USA? (as the CIA/FBI seemed to think)


8) Draw on at least three films to explore how ‘the Sixties’ have been portrayed on celluloid.


9) Evaluate the impact of any of the following: pop art; op-art; psychedelic art, performance art.


10) How radical was radical theatre in the sixties?


11)  `May ’68 was Situationist’ Was it?


12) ‘The Beatles always knew which way the wind was blowing’. With this in mind, to what extent did the Beatles make the future and to what extent did they follow it?


13) What were the roots of radical opposition to the Vietnam war?


14) What was the response of the post-66 counter-culture to ‘Vietnam’?


15) Drugs: nastier; sex: cruder; music: more extreme; politics: more vicious and leftist; economy: critical. Is this a fair summing up of the period 1970-1975?


16) In what ways did fashion and design mark out the swinging sixties?


17) Did Harold Wilson’s governments make any contribution to the ‘spirit of the sixties’?


8) What were the aesthetic, cultural, and political differences between the European avant-garde and American experimentalism in music in the period 1955-1975.


19) Is a distinction between political radicalism and the psychedelic counter-culture, a helpful one in an analysis of the dynamics and tensions in the socio-cultural and political movements of the Sixties?


20) Does the concept of ‘liminality’ help us explain the motivations and social structure of ‘the underground’ movement in Britain, 1965-1975.


21) Is there a substantial difference between British and American ‘psychedelic’ rock?


22) ‘The dialectics of liberation is best expressed in the relation of politics to psychoanalysis.’ Discuss.


23) Evaluate the proposition that, in the 1960s Feminism was developing theoretically, but was, practically speaking, a failure.


24) ‘The essence of 1960s youth culture was not long hair and drugs, but pop music, teenagers, and the transistor radio’. Discuss.


25) Was progressive rock the last, and most absurd, incarnation of ‘hippie music’?




Want to go to: 60s Resources?




The Lecture Course/Seminars: every TUESDAY. 1 - 3pm.


In keeping with the aura of the 60s we all do our own thing vis-à-vis this module. Largely I will talk (my thing) for a bit or so and then show a vid/dvd that better shows and tells you about ideas, images and arguments than will seminars - which are a drag. And then we’ll go home. However, doing your own thing means that you read up stuff that I tell you to – your freedom is to read it where and when you want to…but to read it is compulsory. Sorry - with freedom comes responsibility! I really do want you to know stuff and tell coherent informed stories about it.


In lectures I expect you to ask questions, interrupt, discuss points and generally get engaged.


The course is comprised of wholes and tangents – that is, we will discuss how counter-culture, culture, politics, economics, society, theory and action all fit together or fall apart and spin off in all directions. Poetry will be spoken, politics will be debated, and music heard…


Find out about ideas/images/sounds that you have never experienced before as well as expand your mind on things you know something about. (faux-Timothy Leary)





Wk 1          3.10.17       First meeting/housekeeping/reading etc. AND talk on social and political theories, ideologies, and institutions relevant to the course.




Wk 2          10.10.17     How do we conceive of the 60s? Historiography.

Period: whatever period they say the 60s was!

Themes: How we determine the shapes of time.

Notes: here



Marwick, A. (1998) historiographical Introduction to ‘The Sixties’ OUP.

Sandbrook, D. Preface to ‘Never had it so Good

deGroot, G, Preface to The Sixties Unplugged

Jameson, F (1984) ‘Periodizing the Sixties’  Read this (on-line only – you cannot download it)  from beginning (p.178) to end of 1st paragraph on p.182. Yes, it is quite difficult but Jameson’s essential ideas of ‘periodization’ is reasonably clearly stated. Jameson is a Marxist and therefore has to deal with his temptation/urge to see everything as an expression of the universal, (and necessary, if you are a marxist, that is) forces, of capitalist production and class conflict..which actually he does not quite wish to do….(This is an important essay by perhaps the most important cultural critic writing today.)

Marwick, A. (1998) The Sixties.  Pt. 1. esp. chp.1


the key Qs I wish to deal with are:

a) how do each of the writers (Marwick, de Groot, Jameson, Sandbrook ) characterise the 'Sixties' - what ingredients and time-line do they in their different varying ways (
so compare and contrast their views) see as combining to capture and periodise the idea:  'the Sixties'

b) think about that issue we started chatting about last time: how do we attain an historical consciousness of a time period? How do we 'get the hang of' a notion of say 'the Sities' or 'the Nineties', or 'the Twenties' - to what degree are the images of a decade a hand-me-down from a media-defined version?

c) how do we as individuals fit together OUR version of a cultural or political or social period - construct an historical sense/intuition - what is its 'phenomenology' i.e. what movements and flows of ideas and images occurring inside out heads - our acts of consciousness' - make 'this' period become a meaningful phenomenon.


Wide range of 60s links


Videos that cover the whole of the 60s - useful for setting the scene for the module:

youtube: The People’s century: the 1960s.  (A good general introduction to the history of the 1960s).

(youtube) The Sixties - The Years That Shaped a Generation (TV) [2005]

youtube: Cold War Documentary Part 13/24 - Make Love Not War - 1960s


 The Rank Organisation created a documentary series 'A Look at Life' that explored on all aspects of life in Britain in the 60s - here is the whole series




Wk 3 & 4             17th/24th 10/17   The post-war settlement: warfare into welfare state. 

Period: 1945-1955.

Themes: Keynes and Beveridge, Preludes to Cold War; class and cultural democracy.



Boris Ford (ed.), (1992) Modern Britain, chp 1. ‘The Cultural and Social Setting’  READ THIS by Roy&Gwen Shaw. Cambridge.

Robert Hewison (1995) Culture and Consensus,  chps 1-3.  Methuen.

Noel Annan, (1990) Our Age, As much as you can read from chp. 14 onwards. Fontana press.

Kenneth Morgan, (1990) The People’s Peace, chps. 1-4. Oxford UP

Peter Vansittart, (1995) In the Fifties, As much as you can read. John Murray.

Clothes 1945-1960

Clothes in 50s and US fashions in 50s

Another link to the Lost Decade series

Video -Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain - pt 1 - 'Advance Britannia' - here is a synopsis of the vid - It is available on youtube (but in multiple parts) or whole on Box of broadcasts (BoB)





Wk 5 & Wk 6     31-10 &  7-11      The Complacent 50s? 

Period: 1951 – 1957. 

Themes: Shocks to the Establishment in high places; decline of Empire; from Churchill/Eden to SuperMac (Macmillan); Europe or America? Re-planning Britain and social policy. 



Hennessy, P. (2006) Having it so Good. (as much as you can)

Kynaston, D - Austerity Britain and Family Britain 1951-57 These are excellent as they are drawn from the Mass Observation Groups work that has assembled diaries etc from people at the time in the 40s and 50s and deal with every imaginable aspect of everyday British life.

BBC website about the US being appalled by Burgess and Maclean's drunkeness and antics..and see the other links at the bottom of the article e.g. the strange case of Buster Crabb

BBC Radio 4 'archive hour' programme on the Cambridge Spies

Official History of MI5 Read Section 'D' - the early Cold War

Official secret CIA report detailing UK/USA 1952/53 plans and ultimately successful overthrow of the nationalist Mossadeq regime in Persia (Iran)

Useful chronology of events 1950-59 and into 60s (WikiP)

Sked and Cook, (1984) Post-War Britain. Chps. 4-6. Penguin.

Hewison, op. cit.

Morgan, op.cit.

Ford, op .cit. chps 4, 9.

Video: The Third Programme: (from the 2005 BBC4 ‘season’ on ‘The Lost Decade’) & Synopsis of 'High Culture for all - The Third programme - the vid on the short-lived cultural democracy movement 1946-56 or thereabouts.

Video: Britain in the 50s - very nice assemblage of items from newsreels and adverts etc of the time with voice over.

Video: Andrew Marr series on Contemporary British History.

Andrew Marr's history of Modern Britain Pt 1 on Austerity Britain - here is a synopsis of Part 1

Andrew Marr's History of Modern Britain pt 2 - Land of Lost Content and here is a synopsis of it. (to view go to 'Box of broadcasts')

Video: on the Canbridge Spies esp Philby

Video on the Cambridge Five - Burgess, Mclean, Philby, Blunt, Cairncross

For US perspective look at the US series: The Century - America's time for the years 1953-60; 1960-65; 65-70 and also David Halberstam's documentaries 50s America (all on YouTube)




Wk 7 - 14.11.17 - resume and tutorial on work to date




Wk 8          21.11.17  Angry Young men and one long HOWL!  Existentialism, The Bomb, Beats, Skiffle and Coffee bars.

Period: 1955 – 1962. 

Themes: Emergence of radical ideas; self-expression of youth culture; questions of moral decline; weakening of a censorious society. 

Lecture Notes

Text of HOWL!

An account of the first reading of Howl in 1955

Poets reactions to Howl

Programme recording on William Burrough’s (sorry about quality but had to compress it – so sounds a bit tinny)



Paper on Colin McInnes' London novels

Vansittart, op.  cit. chp. 14.

Wilson, C. (1956) The Outsider.

Ford, op.cit.  chp 1, 7.

Morgan, op.cit. pp. 140-157;  176-194.

Annan (Our Age), op. cit. chps 18-19 (background)

Hewison, ('Too Much!') op.cit. chp. 4.

Marwick, op.cit. chp. 3-4.

Allen Ginsberg, Howl (in Collected Poems)

Sartre,  J-P,  Nausea.  Penguin

Jonathon Green, All Dressed Up, pp. 1-50.  Pimlico.

The Beats: New York (this is a safe website tho' it is listed as un trusted)
The Beats: San Francisco
The Black Mountain Poets

Video: ‘Soho Boho’ (again from the Lost Decade series)




Wk 9 –  28.11.17 – The Rise of the Permissive Society and Decline of the Macmillan government. 

Period: 1959 - 1964. 

Themes: Supermac; ‘never had it so good’ society; scandal/Profumo. Quote: HAROLD MACMILLAN, 1957,  Speech at a Conservative party Political rally in Bedford."Most of our people have never had it so good."

But this is the Anthony Sampson in ‘The Observer’, 1963: "Within 2 years, the credit squeeze had ended, skyscrapers spread over cities, newspapers became fatter or died, commercial TV began making millions, shops, airlines, even coal and banks had to fight for their lives. After the Big Sleep, many people welcomed any novelty; any piece of americanisation seemed an enterprising change, and any thrusting tycoon, however irresponsible, was regarded as a phenomenon. Only now in Britain are we becoming visually aware of living in a state of perpetual and perilous change."

Vide: Mods and Rockers and another documentary



Andrew Marr History of Britain: 1960s article

Sked and Cook, op.cit. chps 6-7

Morgan, op.cit. chps. 5-6.

Bernard Levin, (1970) The PendulumYears, chps. 2-6. Pan books

Janet Street-Porter, Scandal!  Allen Lane/Penguin.

Annan, op. cit. chp. 10.

Medical treatment of Homosexuals in 1950s

Sexual Offences Act 1967 - text

The Abortion Act 1967 - text

History of Abortion law in US (bit later - in early 70s - famous Roe v wade case

Abortion  law reform 1967

Expert paper on the lead in to the 1967 Abortion law

Campaigners of the time speak about the 1967 Act

Divorce and marriage in 1960 – BBC TV documentary

BBC ‘Panorama’ prog from 1963 on Divorce reform

1960 leading women speak about marriage and divorce 1965.

quick V&A article on 60s fashion

Gay History 60s

History of CHE

1960s Films

good article on Profumo scandal

and look up stuff on other permissive legislation -Divorce law reform; abolition of Hanging, The Pill.




Wk 10        5.12.17       What were the Swinging Sixties? 

Period: 1961 – 1965. 

Themes: High Culture absorbed into Popular Culture; fashion; Mods/Rockers; Sex and Drugs and Rock ‘n Roll; Beatles/Stones; a hint of psychedelia; the Arts.

 Video - I hate the Sixties and The Beatles Decade pt 3 – 1965-66.


Radio programme on Mods

Another Programme on Mods

1950s fashions - excellent page

Hewison, op.cit. chp. 5.

George Melly (1970) Revolt into Style, pp. 62-105; 145-155; 159-180. Penguin.

Green, op.cit. chp 7.

Levin, op. cit. chp. 22.

Marwick, op. cit. pp. 404-441.

Pop charts in 50s and 60s

Good 50s and 60s resource

Question: What was the permissive society? And if all was permitted, what was there to satirise?

Link to BBC series ‘Summer in the Sixties’.

Videos: on fashion and photography in Swinging London out of the rather fuller 50s: THE REAL BLOW UP SIXTIES FILM DOCUMENTARY PART1 and part 2




Wk 11         12-12-17

The Satire Boom and Private Eye.  Period: 1960 – 1964. 

Themes: Social and Political satire; reactions to the scandals of the Macmillan period and the failings of the Wilson Government; Oxbridge; the satirical legacy.

 Links to satire: early satire, Noel Coward, Joyce Grenfell, Beyond the fringe, Peter Cook, Tom Lehrer, etal.


Links to 60s comedy and gay sterotyping

Humphrey Carpenter, (2000) That Was Satire That Was (read as much as possible)

Roger Wilmut (1980) From Fringe to Flying Circus, chps.  1- 4. Methuen.

Patrick Marnham, (1982) The Private Eye Story. Chps. 1-5. Fontana.

Good journo piece of 60s satire with some vid clips

Video: Peter Cook – Heroes of Comedy.




Term two: 


Wk 1             9.1.18   ‘The White Heat of Technology’ Labour in Power 1964-66. + Wilson’s second government, 1966-1970 –from boom to bust.

Period: 1964 – 1970 Themes: Dull Alec/Smart Alec; Science, Welfare, the Mixed Economy; De-colonisation and Rhodesia; Permissive Society made official; Race/Poverty.

Hewison, op cit. chp. 5.

Marwick, op.cit. pp. 229-240 (on race) and chp. 6.

Green, op. cit. chp. 6

Morgan, op. cit. chps. 6-7.

Sked and Cook, op.  cit. chp. 8.

Levin, op. cit. chp. 13.

Extract from White Heat of technology speech


Harold Wilson, The Labour Government 1964-1970 chps.  1-18.

Notes on the 1967 Devaluation of the pound sterling and on what is devaluation.

 Video: I hate the Sixties

Enoch Powell and the Rivers of Blood speech

Note on Powell and his speech




Wk 2          16.1.18       Experimentalism 1:  Art.

 Video on sculpture and the Arts in the 60s.

Period: 1955 – 1975

Themes: beginnings of Pop Art; Op Art; Psychedelic Art; Political Art; experimental Art.


Lucy Lippard: Pop Art

George Melly: Revolt into Style.

Note on Art and Arts progs on 60s TV

Gallery of 50s and 60s artists

Le Corbusier: Possibly the greatest modernist architect, (who worked on several buildings with the composer/architect/mathematician Iannis Xenakis),  has had a posthumous exhibition exploring his work, at the Barbican in London. The Barbican, has of course very Corbusier-like designs. There is nice BBC slide show with commentary at this website.




Week 3       30.1.18       Experimentalism 2: the avant-garde in Music.

Period: 1900-1975

Themes: death of tonality; new musical systems; electronics; Schonberg to Stockhausen and beyond; Fluxus; multi-media.

Notes on 60s music

Reading & Listening:

Michael Nyman - Experimental Music.

Biog of Pierre Schaeffer

Stuff about Pierre Henri and listen to tracks (another founding father of Musique Concrete). Henri worked with ‘prog-rock’ group Spooky Tooth in the 1970s.

Music by founding father of electro-acoustic music: Belgian avant-garde composer of 50s/60s/70s Henri Pousseur (a) and (b)

Cott, J. Conversations with Stockhausen.

blurb from BBC 4 prog on experimental music

Video:             Classic Britannia pt. 2 – The Sixties. 

Questions: What was the difference between avant-garde and experimental music?






Wk 4          23-1-18       Experimentalism 3: from Pop & Rock to Space-, Jazz-, Prog-, & Kraut-Rock

Reading - esp. chps 1-3 - Machine Music

Vids for this

Krautrock vids 

Period: 1956-1976

Themes: the transformation of ‘popular’ music from the 3 minute hit wonder to 20+minute musical ‘creativity’.

Go to: Cuneiform records and Listen

Vid on US Folk into Rock.

Vid on History of Heavy Metal from late-60s




Wk 5          6.2.18         Literature and Theatre in the 60s - from the polite to the radical.




Wk 6          13-2-18       US counter-culture and Vietnam/British counter-culture, the Underground press, liminality & Counter-culture and Vietnam. 

Reactions to Vietnam; Folk into Rock; Protest; alternative life-styles

 Reading: chp. from Bernice Martin's Sociology of Contemporary Cultural Change - British Counter-Culture

extracts on ‘Vietnam and Rise of Protest’ and a chapter on 60s Counter-Culture in the US

Joe Boyd – White Bicycles

 Complete IT (International Times) Archive – probably the most important underground counter-culture magazine

Underground Magazines/OZ trial

Sixties Project: Bibliography of the Sixties and the Viet Nam War

Counter-culture themes (good links)

Old Hippies remember (US)

Good general documentary about later 60s revolt (US)




7th Week - 20th FEBRUARY 2018: Presentation/Essay tutorial sessions. Availability: Tuesday 10am




Wk 8          27.2.18      




wk 9 - 6.3.18        Culture and Politics 1: Revolting Students and May ’68/Who were the Situationists/who were the Provos and Kabouteurs (Goblins)? 

Period: 1956 – 1972

Themes: Radicalism in the Universities; LSE; Paris in May ’68; Berlin, Rome; the rise of ultra-radicalism and anti-statist movements Situationism; Guy Debord and Raoul Vaniegem; Dada and Surrealism; Lettrisme; Urban critique; detournement; contribution to May ’68.

Video: South Bank Show special on May ’68: Period: 1966-1968

Read this: Between Paris and Amsterdam

See this

Reading: Sadie Plant: The most radical gesture.

Look on the net for ‘Situationism’.

Please read:  article on May 68 in France. This is good as it reviews different explanations and approaches to the meaning of the ‘May events’

Situationist texts

Ken Knabb's classic edition of SI texts

More SI links 

Background to May ’68 – video/youtube

Good US documentary about May 8 in Paris

May 68 posters

British radical posters

More posters

Essex University 1968 in memory and pictures

Sheila Rowbotham on visiting Essex University for the Revolutionary Festival


Question: To what extent did anarchism/situationism shape May ’68.




Wk 10                  13.3.18       Culture and Politics II: Marxism, psychoanalysis and anti-psychiatry.

Video: BBC4 series: ‘Lefties’ pt. 2 (youtube)

 Period: 1965 – 1975.

Themes: After Hungary ’56; neo-marxism and critical theory; Marxism and cultural studies; Gramsci; the New left; Marcuse; Freud and R.D. Laing.


R.D. Laing – The Divided Self

D. Cooper (ed) The Dialectics of Liberation

H. Marcuse, Essay on Liberation.

what is anti-psychiatry

Ronald Laing - radical psychiatrist

Question:  What was the connection between outer space (political protest) and inner space (madness/consciousness)





Wk 11        20.3.18   The Politics of Violence: from the radical gesture to terrorism – Autonomism and Lotta Continua, Weathermen(US) and the Baader-Meinhof group (West Germany) - the end of the 'Sixties?'

Period: 1967-1977

Themes: how did we go from the rise of civil disobedience in say the times of CND (late 1950s) to acts of violence, bombings and killings culminating in the murder of the Italian prime minister Aldo Moro in 1978?

Who were the Baader-Meinhof gang?

Weathermen Underground announce more revolution

Documentary about Antonio Negri and the radical Autonomy movements of 68-78 in Italy (very good)





Wk 12        27.3.18 - Britain in Crisis 1970-74: from Populism to the Provos: Period - 1970-74.

themes: the working class - wanting the fruits of revolution or capitalism?; the colours of the 70s - glitter & glam on TV, brown and orange in your sitting room.

Sandbrook, D (2007) White Heat (as much as you can)

Video on Womens Movement in 70s - 'Angry Wimmin'








Appendix 1:




All items with a star (*) cannot be changed without approval.




School Of Social Sciences


SSC Sociology Division




The Sixties: Radicalism and Counter-Culture












Graham B McBeath













This module has no supplementary regulations


The continuing concern with the 'meaning' of the Sixties, has led to many research programmes and conferences on this subject.  The time is ripe for bringing an examination of the political, social and cultural dynamics of the anti-Vietnam generation into the lecture hall so as to give a portrait of the meshing of radical politics, experiment in the arts, psychedelia, rock music, drugs and the defiance of moral and political authority.



OVERALL AIM(S) FOR THE MODULE* (Max 2 bullet points)


To encourage an inter-disciplinary approach to interpreting ‘the Sixties’


To develop empirically grounded critiques of established sociological theories founded on collectives or ‘blocks’ e.g. class, the mass etc.  by interpreting Sixties society and culture as a mobile network of flows.



On successful completion of the module students will be able to:


Knowledge and Understanding


a)         Show an understanding of the shifting cultural, political, moral and economic issues shaping the Sixties.


b)         Signal recognition by discussion, of the relation between ideas, agents and intellectual and cultural environments.


c)         Ground observation in a range of Social Science theories.


Subject - specific Skills


d)         Discriminate between varying interpretations of the meaning of the Sixties.


e)         Offer explanations of radicalism and conformity of various social groups at         different points of the Sixties.


f)          Demonstrate a historiographical awareness of the issues of 'periodising' the         Sixties.


Key Skills


g)         Provide a synthesis of rich and varied empirical material.


h)         Research from a wide variety of types of source material.


i)          Argue a point of interpretation to which they are committed.



This module will explore the meaning of the Sixties by using as a starting point popular conceptions of the Sixties: political radicalism and psychedelia.  It will thematise:

  • the politics of antagonism,
  • the counter-culture;
  • anarchism and marxism;
  • folk and rock music; and
  • avant-garde arts and film. 


These will be set against a broader context of the interaction between established 'traditional' or ‘straight’ society and its antagonists.  The module will be international in character looking at UK, USA, France, Germany and Italy in particular and will be sustained by the hypothesis that the Sixties began in 1955 and ended in 1975!!




24 x 1 Hr Lectures                                                                               24

12 x 1 Hr Seminars                                                                               12

(2 x 6) x 1 Hr Reading in-depth sessions                                               12

18 x 3 Hrs Seminar preparation                                                            54

6 x 5 Hrs In-depth reading session preparation                                      30

Group Presentation                                                                               25

1 x 2,000 Word Assignment                                                                 20

Tutorials and Skills Development                                                           23

Total                                                                                                    200



This module uses a large range of off- and on-line audio/visual resources.

All module guides, key reading, and materials are made available on-line.




Assessment Items                                                             Units    Weighting      Learning Outcomes

AS1- 1 x 2,000 Word Assignment                                        2               40          all

AS2- 1 x Seminar Contribution                                             1               20          a,b,c,g,h

PS1- 1 x Presentation                                                           2               40          all



1.         Sensitivity to historical contexts.

2.         Powers of argumentation and synthesis of theoretical and empirical material.

3.         Involvement in the evaluation of primary texts.





Appendix 2


CAF Assessment Grades


These are the criteria required to achieve each classification at:

Level 5


An outstanding Distinction


Work which fulfils all the criteria of the grade below, but at an exceptional standard


A very strong Distinction


Work of distinguished quality which is based on a rigorous and detailed knowledge base, including major theories of the discipline(s) and awareness of the variety of ideas, contexts and frameworks and wider implications.  Work will demonstrate sustained ability to analyse, synthesise, evaluate and interpret concepts, principles and data within field of study in a considered manner, as well as to develop convincing arguments and judgements appropriate to the field of study/ assessment task.  There will be strong evidence of competence across a range of specialised skills using them to plan, develop and evaluate problem solving strategies, to challenge received opinion and develop own judgements. Clear evidence of capability to operate autonomously and self-evaluate in situations of varying complexity and predictability, but within defined guidelines will be demonstrated. Outputs will be communicated effectively, accurately and reliably.


A clear Distinction


Work of very good quality which displays most but not all of the criteria for the grade above.


A Distinction


Work of highly commendable quality which clearly fulfils the criteria for the grade below, but shows a greater degree of capability in relevant intellectual/subject/key skills.


A very strong Merit


Work of commendable quality based on a strong detailed knowledge base for the field of study, including an assured grasp of concepts, principles and major theories, together with effective deployment of skills relevant to the discipline and assessment task.  There will be evidence of considered analysis, synthesis, evaluation and application, and the ability to work effectively with minimum direction to meet defined objectives and develop own judgements.  There will be consistent evidence of capability in all relevant subject based and key skills, including the ability to self-evaluate and work autonomously with minimal direction to use effectively a range of techniques in situations of varying complexity and predictability.


A strong Merit


Work of good quality which contains most, but not all of the characteristics of the grade above.



A clear Merit




Work which clearly fulfils all the criteria of the grade below, but shows a greater degree of capability in relevant intellectual/subject/key skills.


A Merit


Work of sound quality based on a firm factual/ conceptual knowledge base for the field of study, including a good grasp of relevant theories, together with the ability to organise and communicate effectively.  The work may be rather standard and limited in its theoretical grasp, but will be mostly accurate and provide some evidence of the ability to analyse, synthesise, evaluate and apply standard methods/techniques, with minimal guidance. There will be no serious omissions or inaccuracies.  There will be good evidence of ability to take responsibility for own learning, some capability to challenge received opinion and form own judgements.  Evidence of the ability to operate with increased autonomy in situations of varying complexity and predictability, selecting and applying appropriate techniques will be demonstrated within limits. There will be competence in relevant key skills.


A very strong Pass


Work of capable quality which contains some of the characteristics of grade above.


A strong Pass


Work of satisfactory quality demonstrating a reliable knowledge base and evidence of developed key skills and/or subject based skills, but still containing limited evidence of analysis, synthesis, evaluation or application, or of appropriate detail or skill application.


A Pass


Work of broadly satisfactory quality covering adequately the factual and/or conceptual knowledge base of the field of study and some key theories, appropriately presented and organised, but is primarily descriptive or derivative, with only occasional evidence of analysis, synthesis, evaluation or application.  There may be some misunderstanding of key concepts/principles/theories and limitations in the ability to select relevant material or techniques and/or in communication or other relevant skills, so that the work may include some errors, omissions or irrelevancies.  There will be evidence of ability to operate with some autonomy in predictable contexts, but less evidence of ability to operate in more complex or unpredictable situations.  However, there will be evidence of ability to use a variety of standard techniques, and to meet threshold standards in relevant key skills.


A bare Pass


Work of bare pass standard demonstrating some familiarity with and grasp of a factual/conceptual and theoretical knowledge base for the field of study, together with evidence of some ability to employ specialist skills to solve problems within area of study, but only just meeting threshold standards in e.g. evaluation and interpretation of data and information, reasoning and soundness of judgment, communication, application, or quality of outputs. Work may be characterised by some significant errors, omissions, limitations or problems, but there will be sufficient evidence of development and competence to operate in varied contexts taking responsibility for the nature and quality of outputs.


A marginal Fail


Work which indicates some evidence of engagement with area of study in relation to acquisition of knowledge and understanding of concepts, principles and theories, and of specialist skills, but which is essentially misinterpreted, misapplied and/or contains some significant omission or misunderstanding, or otherwise just fails to meet threshold standards in e.g. communication, application or quality of outputs.


A Fail


Work that falls well short of the threshold standards in relation to one or more area of knowledge, intellectual, subject based or key skills. It may address the assessment task to some extent, or include evidence of successful engagement with some of the subject matter, but such satisfactory characteristics will be clearly outweighed by major deficiencies across remaining areas.


A comprehensive



Work of poor quality which is based on only minimal understanding, application or effort. It will offer only very limited evidence of familiarity with knowledge or skills appropriate to the field of study or task and/or demonstrate inadequate capability in key skills essential to the task concerned.


Non-submission/Nil attempt


Nothing presented.






Appendix 3


Guidelines for the ‘Harvard’ system of referencing


The ‘Harvard’ system uses brackets in the text and is one of the easiest referencing systems to use. It is also widely employed in academic publications, both journals and books. The list of references at the end of the essay should be arranged alphabetically with full bibliographic information. The alphabetical list should include all the references which have been used (books, articles, reports, government publications, theses, etc.). The references in the alphabetical list should contain the name of the author, the date of publication, the title of publication, the place of publication and the publisher, set out as follows:


for books:


-          Miles, S. (2001) Social Theory in the Real World, London: Sage


-          O’Byrne, D.J. & Hensby, A. (2011) Theorizing Global Studies, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan


for articles:


-          Jameson, F. (2000) Globalization’ in New Left Review 4 (July/August), pp. 49-68


for chapters in edited volumes:


-          Thompson, K. (1992) ‘Social Pluralism and Post-Modernity’ in Hall, S. and McGrew, T. Modernity and Its Futures, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp 221-255


for government reports or other publications where there is no author’s name:


-          World Bank (2012) World Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press


References in the text of your assignment should always refer to the sources listed in your bibliography. Following the Harvard system, this is done by placing the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets at the relevant point in the text: for example, (Miles, 2001). When quoting directly from a source you should also include the relevant page number(s): for example, (Jameson, 2000: 272).


Footnotes may be used in conjunction with the Harvard system when you have a piece of information to give but it is inconvenient to break up the text to give it. Traditionally footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page in a smaller font: most word-processing packages will create them for you. Alternatively, you may put all ‘notes’ at the end and signal them in the text by a superscript or number in brackets.


For more detailed information on the Harvard System of Referencing – including the citation of internet sources – or for a Quick Guide.





Appendix 4


Office of the Academic Registrar




The University unequivocally condemns plagiarism, which it considers to be comparable to falsifying data and cheating in an examination, and warns students that the Senate looks gravely upon incidences of plagiarism and is empowered to recommend severe penalties where students are found guilty of plagiarism. (See Academic Misconduct)




The University considers plagiarism involves an intention to deceive and entails the submission for assessment of work which purports to be that of the student but is in fact wholly or substantially the work of another. Since it is difficult to establish such an intention to deceive except through practice the University defines plagiarism in the following way.


The University defines plagiarism as the incorporation by a student in work for assessment of material which is not their own in the sense that all or substantial part of the work has been copied without any attempt at attribution or has been incorporated as if it were the student's own when in fact it is wholly or substantially the work of another person.


For further details on the policy and procedures regarding suspected academic misconduct, see the

University's STUDENT CODE and information on Academic Misconduct.





Appendix 5


1)      In the table below, you will find some general statements about general aspects of the module. Please indicate how you 'rate' this module by ticking the box which best reflects your view of the course:



Key: A = Excellent; B = Very Good; C = Good; D = Satisfactory; E = Unsatisfactory



How do you rate:






Your overall level of satisfaction with the module






The organisation of lectures






The pitch of lectures






The delivery (pace, structure) of lectures






The teaching aids/materials used in lectures






The usefulness of module guides






The overall course content






Help and support from module tutors






Our response(s) to suggestions and problems






The organisation/structure of seminars






The size of seminar groups






The purpose of seminars






The range of activities in the seminars






The range of materials used in seminars






The availability of resources for the module








If your ratings included any Cs or Ds (or if you are happy in general, but have some specific suggestions), please explain in a few words why you were less than satisfied with this/these aspects of the course and what we could do to make improvements:

















2)      Are there any aspects of the module which you particularly enjoyed (e.g. activities, teaching styles, etc.) and would like to see adopted more widely?
















3)      How do you rate your experience on this module in comparison to your other subjects?



Key: A = Excellent; B = Very Good; C = Good; D = Satisfactory; E = Unsatisfactory



How do you rate:






Your overall level of satisfaction with the module






The organisation of lectures






The pitch of lectures






The delivery (pace, structure) of lectures






The teaching aids/materials used in lectures






The usefulness of module guides






The overall course content






Help and support from module tutors






Our response(s) to suggestions and problems






The organisation/structure of seminars






The size of seminar groups






The purpose of seminars






The range of activities in the seminars






The range of materials used in seminars






The availability of resources for the module








Please indicate in a few words what you think we could learn from your other subject(s) and what they could learn from us:














4)      Are there any parts or aspects of the module which you struggled or had difficulties with?















5)      Please evaluate your own performance and that of your colleagues on this module.









Are you happy with your own performance in this module?






Do you think you personally got the most out of this course?






Are you happy with the performance of your colleagues

in seminars and/or group work?








If you are not happy with your performance, please indicate what you think stops you from performing to your best ability:
















Study time

4 or more

2-4 hrs.

1-2 hrs.

up to 1 hr.

How many hours a week (on average) did you spend to prepare for this module?





Do you think you spend enough time preparing for this module?




If you spend less than two hours a week preparing for this module, please explain why you do not/cannot spend more time:
















All the


Most of

the time



Do you actively participate in seminar discussions?





Do you feel you are getting something out of seminar discussions?





Do you feel that your colleagues in seminars are adequately prepared?







Please indicate briefly your views on the recommended readings/sources:













If you feel that you and/or your colleagues do not participate as much as you/they could, please indicate what we could do to change this and what you could do to change this:





















Appendix 6


UMF Assessment regulations and resubmission dates


Please note the following important information regarding the submission of assessments:



The essay assignment should be submitted on NILE via the Submit Your Work button. Please follow the instructions that appear after you click on Submit Your Work.


Referral and Deferral

Referred assessments are those where a student is permitted to retake assessment for the module as a second attempt following initial failure (F+, F, F- or G). In these circumstances, the maximum grade is D-.


Deferred assessments are those where a student is permitted to take assessment for the module at a later opportunity, as a result of a decision by the mitigating circumstances panel. In these cases, there is no constraint on the grade.



Extensions are given at the discretion of tutors and evidence is likely to be required for requests.

Extensions must be requested at least two days before the assessment deadline and can only be given for a maximum of two weeks.


Late submission

Assessments submitted after the deadline, where an extension has been agreed, are subject to the following penalties:

-          Submitted within one week of the deadline – maximum grade of D-

-          Submitted later than one week of the deadline – referred (i.e. ‘failed’).


Referred assessments

Any item of assessment which has been referred either as graded below a D- on the first attempt, submitted more than one week after the deadline, or not submitted at all may be ‘replaced’ by an alternative assessment with new fixed deadlines (see below), but with a maximum grade of D-.


Deferred assessments

Any item of assessment which has been deferred may be ‘replaced’ by an alternative assessment with new deadlines (see below), with no constraint on the grade.


Assignment One: you will be required to submit another essay from the list of titles given for the original assignment. N.B. You may not choose a question that you have already attempted.


Assignment Two: you will be required to perform a different presentation that focuses an alternative example of a utopia that the one chosen the first time.


Assignment three: you will write another report correspondent to a referred or deferred Ass 2


No extensions are available for referred or deferred assessments. Please note that these are the only opportunities to improve on a failed grade.