Global Ethics and Identity
















IRD 3037


Global Ethics and Identity



Lecturer Contact Details



Dr. Glyn Daly (Module Co-ordinator)



Mr Graham McBeath






Module information


For module updates please keep an eye on the IRD3037 website on NILE. 




























In an age of globalisation can we speak of a corresponding global ethics? What, for example, do we mean by ‘human rights’? Who should enforce these rights? Does multiculturalism and the increasing pluralisation of identities render impossible the idea of a universal ethics? Do we have an ethical responsibility to the Other and, if so, what form and/or direction should it take? Drawing from such examples as the holocaust, the ‘clash of civilizations’, contemporary culture, political economy and new (bio-genetic) advances in science and technology, this module explores the relationship between ethics, religion, ideology and politics.



The module will be taught through a programme of weekly lectures and seminars.


Teaching Arrangements


The module is taught over 24 weeks, two hours per week and is timetabled as follows:


Thursdays 4- 6pm in LH114



Teaching is through a combination of workshops and tutorials. Activities will include discussions of specified reading, themes and topics


The general purpose of the workshops is to present and provide you with the basic outlines of particular issues and debates within the field, and to draw your attention to questions and issues which you will pursue further in discussions, reading groups and in self-guided research outside class. Discussions should be student-led, with the tutor acting mainly as a facilitator.  How much you get out of seminars depends very much on your preparation and willingness to enter into discussion with your colleagues. 


While workshops are essential elements of the module, your success will depend largely on how much reading and research you do around the subject.  You should allow around two to three hours per week for self-directed study, in addition to the two hours per week in class for this module.  In order to become an efficient researcher, it is important that you familiarise yourself with the services and facilities offered by the library, especially the availability of electronic and on-line sources as well as the short loan section.







Tutorials may be arranged during office hours or at other times by mutual agreement.


For matters relating to your programme of study, please consult the module co-ordinator.






Regular attendance is essential, and attendance registers will be taken for each session. If you cannot attend a particular session, you should inform the relevant tutor in advance. Combined Honours students who repeatedly miss sessions without having or offering a valid reason, may be reported as a 'cause for concern' to the CH programme director.  If you are found to be ‘in neglect of your academic obligations ‘ (non-attendance, non-submission of coursework), you may have your right to re-sit failed assessments withdrawn, or in extreme cases be asked to leave the course.  Copies of 'cause for concern' records will be kept on your student file, which in turn will be used by all tutors you nominate as referees when applying for jobs during and after your time at the University of Northampton.
































Autumn Term



Week 1 (04/10/18)                Introduction (GD)



Week 2 (11/10/18)                Aristotle and the Ethics of Balance (GD)



Week 3 (18/10/18)                Kant and the Cosmopolitan Tradition (GD)



Week 4 (25/10/18)                Kant’s Moral Law (GD)



Week 5 (01/11/18)                Consequentialism & Utilitarianism (GD)



Week 6 (08/11/18)                Global Ethics vs Cultural Relativism (GD)



Week 7 (15/11/18)                Skills/Tutorial Week



Week 8 (22/11/18)                Virtue Ethics: "Can Virtue Ethics guide us in a complex society? (GMcB)



Week 9 (29/11/18)                Ethics and religion (GMcB)



Week 10 (06/12/18)             Ethics of Comedy (GD)



Week 11 (13/12/18)             Assignment Preparation/Tutorials










Spring Term




Week 12 (10/01/19)             War and Violence (GD)



Week 13 (17/01/19)             The Possibility/Impossibility of Forgiveness (GD)



Week 14 (24/01/19)             Postmodern Ethics

                                                Difference and Tolerance (GD)



Week 15 (31/01/19)             Extremity and morality (GMcB)



Week 16 (07/02/19)             Welfare and Ethics (GMcB)



Week 17 (14/02/19)             Obligations to past generations (GMcB)   



Week 18 (21/02/19)             Skills/Tutorials week



Week 19 (28/02/19)             Obligations to future generations (GMcB)


Week 20 (07/03/19)             Do Bytes have Rights? (GMcB)                             



Week 21 (14/03/19)             Ethics as Radical Evil? (GD)



Week 22 (21/03/19)             Ethics of the Real (GD)



Week 23 (28/03/19)             Overview  - Future Ethics (GD)



Week 24 (04/04/19)             Assignment preparation













While there is no textbook for this module the following books represent a useful introduction to contemporary global ethics:


Widdows, H. (2011), Global Ethics: An Introduction, Durham: Acumen.

Dower, N. (1998) World Ethics, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Valls, A. & V. Held (2000), Ethics in International Affairs, Maryland: Rowman

  & Littlefield.



Useful overviews can also be found in the following:


MacIntyre, A. (2007), After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, London:


MacIntyre, A. (2002), A Short History of Ethics, London: Routledge.





Indicative reading and other learning resources:





Aristotle (2000), Nicomachean Ethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University


Bauman, Z. (1989), Modernity and the Holocaust, Cambridge: Polity.

Bauman, Z. (1993), Postmodern Ethics, Oxford: Blackwell.

Bauman, Z. (1995), Life in Fragments: essays in postmodern moraity, Oxford:


Blackburn, S. (2001), Being Good: A Short Introduction to Ethics, OUP.

Booth, Ken & Steve Smith [eds.] (1995) International Relations Theory Today

Bottomore, T. (1983), A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, Oxford: Blackwell.

Brown, Chris (2005), Understanding International Relations

Bull, Hedley (2002), The Anarchical Society

Carr, E.H. (1946), The Twenty Years Crisis

Chan, Stephen and Cerwyn Moor (2006), Theories of International Relations

(Multivolume Set – especially Vols.I, II, IV)

Crick, B. (1962), In Defence of Politics

Critchley, S. (1999), Ethics – Politics – Subjectivity, London: Verso.

Critchley, S. (1992), The Ethics of Deconstruction, Oxford: Blackwell.

Dower, N. (2008), The Ethics of Peacebuilding, Edinburgh: Edinburgh

  University Press.

Dower, N. (1998), World Ethics, Edinburgh University Press.

Dobson, A. (1995), Green Political Thought, London: Routledge.

Dupre, B. (2013), 50 Ethics Ideas You Really Need to Know, London:


Eatwell, R. and A. Wright (eds.) (2000), Contemporary Political Ideologies,

  London: Continuum.

Eckersley, R. (1992), Environmentalism and Political Theory, London: UCL


Eccleshall, R. et al (eds.) (1994), Political Ideologies, London: Routledge.

Foot, Rosemary [ed.] (2002), Order and Justice in International Relations

Fukuyama, Francis (1992), The End of History and the Last Man

Gray, J. (1991), Liberalisms,

Gregg, Robert (1998), International Relations on Film

Halliday, Fred (1994), Rethinking International Relations

Hoffman, J. (2006), Introduction to Political Ideologies, Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Hoffman, J. (2006), Introduction to Political Concepts, Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Huntington, Samuel (1996), The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of

  World Order

Jones, C. (1999), Global Justice, OUP.

Kaldor, Mary (2003), Global Civil Society

Kegley, Charles (1999), World Politics

Kegley, Charles [ed.] (1995), The Global Agenda

Knutsen, Torbjorn (1997), A History of International Relations Theory

MacIntyre, A. (1981), After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, Duckworth.

Macintyre, A. (1966), A Short History of Ethics, London: MacMillan.

Mann, M. (2005), The Dark Side of Democracy, CUP

Mingst, Karen (2004), Essentials of International Relations

Mouffe, C. (ed.) (1992), Dimensions of Radical Democracy, London: Verso.

Morgan, April [ed.] (2004), Ethics and Global Politics

Nye, Joseph (2003), Understanding International Conflict

Parkinson, Fred (1997), The Philosophy of International Relations

Porter, B.F. (1980), The Good Life: Alternatives in Ethics, Macmillan.

Rorty, R. (1989), Contingency, Irony and Solidarity, Cambridge: Cambridge

  University Press.

Rorty, R. (1982), Consequences of Pragmatism, Brighton: Harvester.

Rosenthal, Joel [ed.] (1999), Ethics and International Affairs

Singer, P. (1986), Applied Ethics, OUP.

Singer, P. & H. Kuhse (1999), Bioethics, Cambridge: Cambridge University


Singer, P. (1993), Practical Ethics, OUP.

Taylor, C. (1991), The Ethics of Authenticity, Cambridge Mass.: Harvard

  University Press.

Thompson, J. (1992), Justice and World Order, Routledge.

Viotti, Paul [ed.] (1999), International Relations Theory

Weber, Cynthia (2006), Imaging America at War: Morality, Politics and Film

Williams, Michael (2005), The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International


Wilson, J. (1970), Moral Thinking: A Guide for Students, Heinemann Educational.

Zupančič, A. (2000), Ethics of the Real, London: Verso.





Just War Literature


Chesterman, Simon (2001), Just War or Just Peace?

Elshtain, Jean Bethke (2003), Just War Against Terror

Nardin, Terry (ed.), The Ethics of War and Peace: Religious and Secular


Ramsey, Paul, The Just War: Force and Political Responsibility

Regan, Richard (1996), Just War Principles and Causes

Walzer, Michael (2006), Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with

  Historical Illustrations

Walzer, Michael (2005), Arguing About War

Weissman, Fabrice (ed.), In the Shadow of Just Wars: Violence, Politics, and

  Humanitarian Action




Ethics : an international journal of social, political and legal philosophy

Journal of ethics

Ethics and information technology


There are many other relevant titles apart from those listed and students should register for an ATHENS account as early as possible. This will help you to discover ways of accessing relevant sources of electronic information.



Internet Resources


The internet is becoming an increasingly important and popular learning resource. However, while there are many valuable sources available on-line, the use of web-based sources carries a serious health-warning. As anybody can publish anything on the internet, net-based sources have to be approached with caution.  If you are relatively new to 'information technology' or the use of the internet, you are encouraged to attend one of the introductory courses offered by the IT services department.


For those already familiar with the basics of internet use, the library's learning resources homepage holds a number of subject specific resources: http://www.northampton.ac.uk/lrs/subjects.


The faculty support team in the library also runs some very helpful sessions on how to identify and use 'good' web-based sources to best effect in your research.


Useful sites for Global Ethics and Identity are:








There are two units of assessment:

(i)                 2000 word essay (50%).

(ii)               2000 word essay (50%),




Students will be expected to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the central concepts and ideas. They will be expected to do so in the form of clear and reasoned argument and critical analysis should be in evidence. The ability to construct a sustained evaluation of the theoretical foundations, and empirical scope, of key perspectives will be central to the assessment criteria as will the ability to communicate in a succinct and lucid fashion. Evidence of a wide and varied background research and appropriate skills of referencing and acknowledgement of sources are also vital.



Submission Process


All assignments must be submitted electronically through turnitin – you can find this through the ‘submit your work’ button on the Nile website for this module.





Submission Dates


Essay 1 (2000 words)                                  Tuesday 29th January 2019



Essay 2 (2000 words)                                  Monday 29th April 2019















Referrals and Deferrals


We now have a new policy that applies to all referrals and deferrals of coursework assessments (for further details, see Appendix 5).  Rather than resubmitting work after the end of the academic year, you will be given an opportunity to resubmit the assessment before the end of the module.  If you are granted a referral or deferral, the deadline for the essay assignment will be as follows:


Initial and referral assessment deadlines

Assessment Item


Referral / Deferral  deadline

2000 word Essay



Friday 29th March 2019

 2000 word Essay


Monday 24th June 2019





Alternative (referral and deferral) assessments


Assessment 1: 2000 word essay due Friday 29th March 2019 - as described below but if previously attempted then a new topic should be chosen.


Assessment 3: 2000-word essay due Monday 24th June 2019 - as described below but if previously attempted then a new topic should be chosen.
















Assessment Guidance




Assignment One – 2000 Word Essay


Essay Titles



Choose one of the following:


1.      (i) ‘Aristotle is an ethical conservative’. Discuss.


(ii) ‘Aristotle’s great advance was to show the link between collective needs and individual responsibility’. Discuss.


2.      Are the ethical perspectives of Aristotle and Kant still relevant today?  Explain and illustrate your answer.


3.      Should we be more Kantian in our approach to ethical issues? Justify your answer.


4.      To what extent do you agree/disagree with Kant’s view of a moral law?


5.      ‘Today, more than ever, we need a sense of virtue’. Discuss.


6.      ‘The single-most important ethical objective is happiness’. Discuss.


7.      Compare and contrast utilitarian and consequentialist approach to ethics.


8.      ‘Ethics always depends on cultural context’. Discuss.


9.      ‘Ethics is ultimately a matter of personal judgement’. Discuss.


10. Does ethics/morality require a belief in God? Explain your answer.


11. Do we have the right to be offended? Justify your answer.


12. Is there a relationship between comedy and ethics? Explain and illustrate your answer.


13. Can comedy be ethical? Explain your answer.


14. On what grounds might ‘whistleblowing’ be justified? Explain your answer.







Assignment 2 - 2000 Word Essay


Essay Titles


Choose one of the following:




  1. Can violence be justified ethically? Explain and illustrate your answer.


  1. Is ethics itself a form of violence? Justify your answer.


  1. Explain and explore the idea of tolerance? Is tolerance a good thing?


  1. What does it mean to forgive?


  1. What, if any, is our ethical obligation towards the Other? Explain and illustrate your answer.


  1. (i) Should limits be placed on cultural diversity? If so, where should they be placed?


(ii) ‘Universal ethics is opposed to cultural identity’. Discuss.


  1. ‘Philanthropy is a way of avoiding ethical responsibility’. Discuss.


  1. Is ethics the same as morality? Explain your answer.


  1. Can ethics be considered to be evil? Explain and illustrate your answer.


  1. What is meant by an ethics of the Real?


  1. To what extent can ethics be separated from politics? Explain and illustrate your answer.


  1.  Do we have obligations to past and/or future generations? Explain and illustrate your answer.


  1. Do bytes have rights? Explain and illustrate your answer.


  1.  Will the future be more or less ethical? Justify your answer.









Essay assignments advice


The essay assignments are designed to test the student’s ability to conduct in-depth research, to synthesise information from a range of sources and to advance well-organized expositions in an articulate, rigorous and creative manner.


Points to remember:


   The essay assignments should be 2000 words in length.

   Choose a question that interests you, and spend some time ‘unpacking’ the question or quotation that you are going to address in the essay.

   You should consult at least five or six relevant sources in preparing your assignment and these should be listed in your bibliography.  Use a range of academic sources and do not rely on internet resources.

   In writing your essay, try and develop a clear line of argument in response to the question set.  Your essay should come with a brief introduction outlining the argument you are going to take, and some concluding comments summarising your position. It is important to develop an analytical rather than a merely descriptive approach to the topic under review.

   Use relevant evidence and examples to support your arguments.

   Make sure your sources are properly referenced in the text.  Quotations should be attributed and ideas used in the text should be referenced in a clear and consistent fashion.  Students are advised to use the Harvard system of referencing (Appendix 3).

   Avoid plagiarism like the plague! There are serious penalties for plagiarism – the copying or close paraphrasing of published or unpublished work – which is regarded as a serious breach of academic standards by the University (see University Statement on Plagiarism).

   Your essay should be typed or word-processed, double spaced, printed in font of readable size and with margins for comments on both sides.



Assignment Drafts


We are happy to look at any draft assignments and to offer comment. However, we will only look at submitted draft work once, not multiple times.











Additional things to consider


Research and Preparation – engagement with relevant literature; summaries of arguments/perspectives; the formulation of pertinent questions and ideas for discussion.


Critical reflection and reflexive engagement identification of key debates and points of contention; critical analysis of the issues at hand; the ability to make connections with central concepts, themes and perspectives explored in the module.


Marking Procedures for Written Work


We endeavour to have written assignments turned around and returned to you within four working weeks from the deadline. Each year, samples of coursework are sent to an external examiner to ensure that our marking standards are comparable to those of other Higher Education Institutions. The external may suggest that a particular mark be moved upwards or downwards. Please note that all marks are provisional until confirmed by the exam board at the end of the academic year.



Problems Affecting Study


If a problem arises which may affect your studies, you are encouraged to discuss this in the first instance with one of the module tutors, or if the problem is likely to affect more than one module, with your personal tutor. Alternatively, if you do not wish to discuss the problem with a member of the teaching staff, you might contact the Dean of Students, or the Student Support Team. If you are experiencing medical or other personal problems that may prevent you from submitting an assignment on time, you should request a Mitigating Circumstances Form, available from the Frameworks Office: http://www.northampton.ac.uk/students/about-your-studies/assessment/mitigating-circumstances


For support with study skills, you are strongly encouraged to visit the University’s Skills Hub: http://skillshub.northampton.ac.uk/ and to make use of the very useful services and facilities available in the Centre for Achievement and Performance (CfAP): http://skillshub.northampton.ac.uk/centre-for-achievement-and-performance-cfap/



Student Feedback

The course team believes in the importance of student feedback as a means of ensuring and improving quality of provision. We invite you to make your views known or raise issues through the following formal channels:


Student Representatives: their role is raise any issues affecting the experience of students on a particular course with the module co-ordinator(s) concerned or, where that seems more appropriate, with the relevant subject course leader. They also represent students at the subject board of study which meets termly and is the formal forum in which issues relating to the subject are discussed. Elected student representatives are invited to attend training sessions on their role. It is up to the student body to brief their representatives on any issues they ought to raise with tutors or at the board of studies.


Feedback Sessions: at the end of the autumn term, one seminar session will be set aside for students to discuss the module amongst themselves and with the module tutors.  Students will be asked to produce a brief written summary of their discussions and any suggestions for future improvements.


Feedback Questionnaire: a Module Evaluation Questionnaire is included at the end of this module guide.  The questionnaire is completed and submitted at the end of the spring term. In the questionnaire, you will be asked to comment on the quality of the teaching. You will also be invited to make constructive suggestions as to how the quality of provision could be improved. The questionnaires will be collated and analysed by the module team, who will present their analysis and response to the issues raised for discussion at the relevant subject boards.  A summary of the feedback and the module team response will be posted on the module noticeboard and included in the end-of-year Module Review.


Individual feedback: above and beyond these formal feedback mechanisms, you are encouraged to approach your module tutors and lecturers directly with any questions or concerns relating to the module (or particular aspects of it). This is a good way of giving feedback to us privately and allows us to respond directly to your concerns. Alternatively, if you do not wish to approach your module tutors or lecturers directly, you can communicate any concerns you have to your personal tutor.






1)     IRD3037 Module Specifications

2)     How to reference

3)     CAF Assessment regulations and re-submission.





Appendix 1




This document forms the definitive overview as to the nature and scope of this module and is used in the University’s quality assurance processes.


The information in this document cannot be changed without approval (except for the Indicative Content).




Business & Law


International Relations & Politics


Economics, International Relations & Development


Global Ethics and Identities









Glyn Daly









What are the contemporary sources of ethical authority? Do we have an ethical responsibility to the Other and, if so, what form and/or direction should it take? Can ethics be separated from politics?



The purpose of this module is to engage with ethical questions and perspectives in the context of increasing globalization. Is it possible to develop a global ethics? Does the increasing pluralisation of identities render impossible the idea of a universal ethics? From classical to contemporary approaches to ethics, the module explores a range of different responses to these types of question.






·        Aristotle

·        Kant

·        Utilitarianism

·        Moral relativism

·        Global ethics and universalism

·        Religion

·        Comedy

·        Violence

·        Welfare

·        Duty and Obligation

·        Difference and tolerance

·        Postmodernism

·        Good and evil






Module Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of the module, with limited guidance students will be able to:


Subject-Specific Knowledge, Understanding & Application

a) critically assess the central concepts, assumptions and themes relating to classical ethical positions and debates


b) make judgments by critical analysis and evaluation in relation to central perspectives framing the complex interaction between ethics and identity


c) identify and analyze central themes and issues at stake in ethical debates and their application in the real world


d) evaluate the various positions taken in relation to the possibility of a global ethics and assess their consequences for questions of difference, tolerance, conflict and solidarity


Employability & Changemaker Skills

e)                  propose and evaluate solutions to increasingly complex problems in a clear and structured way


f)                    select and use a range of formats and styles, to communicate, argue and counter-argue information, attitudes and ideas professionally and empathetically



TYPICAL LEARNING, TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT HOURS (for the module as delivered on-site at the University of Northampton):

Learning and teaching information for this module when delivered off-site by UN partners is available from the partner institution’s NILE site (or equivalent). Any variation in study hours must be approved by the University of Northampton before students are enrolled, ensuring that study hours provision is always appropriate to support student achievement of the module learning outcomes.


Learning, Teaching and Assessment activities

Study hours

Contact hours: (total)

Comprising face-to-face and online contact hours as follows:



-         Face-to-face (total) – this may include


-         Face-to-face interactive lectures

-         Face-to-face workshops and seminars

-         Scheduled assignment tutorials





·        Online contact hours (total)
(comprising online activities with mediated tutor input)


Guided independent study hours
(including hours for assessment preparation)


Module Total






University of Northampton:


Assessment Activity

Learning Outcomes

Weighting (%)


Assessment Type

Assessment Deliverables





2000-word essay

a, b, e




2000-word essay

c, d, f




The assessment items listed above are graded and contribute to the overall module grade (assessment of learning). In addition, there are opportunities for formative assessment (assessment for learning), which are ungraded, to support students in achieving the module learning outcomes. These are NOT listed.



Version: 1

Date of approval:          










































Appendix 2


How to reference


Students are required to use the ‘Harvard system’ of referencing


The ‘Harvard’ system uses brackets in the text and is one of the easiest referencing systems to use.  It is also widely employed in academic publications, both journals and books. The list of references at the end of the essay should be arranged alphabetically in the form of a BIBLIOGRAPHY. The alphabetical list should include all the references that have been used (books, articles, websites, reports, government publications, theses, etc.). The references in the alphabetical list should contain the name of the author, the date of publication, the title of publication, the place of publication and the publisher, set out as follows:



for books:

Heywood, A. (2012), Politics, London: MacMillan.


for articles:

Marx, K. (2014), ‘The Rise and Fall of the Bourgeoisie’, New Left Review, 4

  (September/October), pp. 49-68.


for chapters in edited volumes:

Putin, V. (1997), ‘If I Ruled the World’ in Burke, A. and Hare, J. (1997), The Body Politic, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 91-111.


for government reports or other publications where there is no author’s name:

World Bank (2001), World Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press. 


for newspaper articles:

Campbell, D. (1991) 'The British Nuclear Industry', The Guardian, 22nd October, p.5.


for internet sources you should include, where possible, the author or organisation, year of publication, title and web address. Finally, you need to include the date that you consulted the internet:

Heywood, A. (2013), Politics, http://www.politics.org (consulted on 14th July 2014)



The references in the text of your assignment should always refer to the sources listed in your Bibliography.  Following the Harvard system, this is done by placing the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets at the relevant point in the text: for example, (Eccleshall, 1994).   When quoting directly from a source you should also include the relevant page number(s): for example, (Eatwell and Wright, 2000: 272).





Footnotes may be used in conjunction with the Harvard system when you have a piece of information to give but it is inconvenient to break up the text to give it. Traditionally footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page in a smaller font: most word-processing packages will create them for you. Alternatively, you may put all ‘notes’ at the end and signal them in the text by a superscript or number in brackets.




Primary referencing: You should cite the source, including page number (s) of a work that has provided you with detailed information such as: -


§         factual material

§         statistical data

§         technical data


OR when a work has strongly influenced your thinking, as in: -


§         a line of inquiry

§         a line of analysis

§         an interpretation of material




When using the Harvard system you should give the author’s name and the date of publication.  Depending on the particular sentence construction you adopt, this information might appear as: -


·                    ‘Smith in 1995 carried out a study of class and suggested…’

·                    ‘Smith (1995) in a study of class points out….’

·                    ‘A study measuring class (Smith, 1995) found….’

·                    ‘In a recent study Smith (1995) argued that …’

·                    ‘In a recent study (Smith, 1995) it was argued that …’




If you need to be more exact about where you derived your information – if, for example, you quote directly from a book – you should note the page numbers as well: -


·                    (Smith, 1996: 112)







For publications by two authors, both are given: -


·                    (Smith and Jones, 1996: 78)


The convention where more than two authors are involved is to use ‘et al’: -


·                    (Smith et al, 1995: 105)


If your source is an extract or chapter taken from either a collection of readings or a book with a number of different contributors published as an edited collection, you need to make clear only the immediate source of the reference:-


·                    (Smith, 1995)


You are citing Smith as the author of the article not the editor of the book.




Secondary Referencing


There will also be occasions when you will refer to a book or piece of information that you have not read at first hand, but which has been commented on or referred to by another author.  This situation is particularly common where you are using a general text of some kind.  This is called secondary referencing and it is important that you signal clearly that you have not read the original text but have relied on the author you have read to give a fair reflection of the original work.


In these cases you must show the author of the primary text as well as the author and date of the secondary text you have used.  This is done by giving the name of the primary text followed by “cited in” followed by the name and date of the secondary reference.  You will need to refer to the bibliography of the secondary text to obtain the detail you need.


The format here would be: -


·                    (Smith, cited in Marsh 1997: 26)

·                    (Smith, cited in Marsh et al (eds) 1997: 26)














If you are actually quoting from a publication rather than discussing/describing it in your own words, then after the quote (which should always be in single quotation marks) you should give the author (s), date and the page number from the text. For example:


As Marx and Engels put it, ‘all history is the history of the class struggle’ (Marx & Engels, 2014: 14).


If the quote is longer it needs to be set out below your narrative and indented. This indentation clearly separates the words of the author from the words of the person being quoted. For example:


What defines the modern economy is the emergence of a dynamic system based on a characteristic relational configuration:

‘Thus capital presupposes wage labour; wage labour presupposes capital. They reciprocally condition the existence of each other; they reciprocally bring forth each other’ (Marx, 2014: 209-210).




Bibliography at the end of an essay/assignment



The purpose of the information given in the text is to refer the reader to your list of references at the end of the essay where s/he will be able to find: -


·                    the full name of the author (s) or editor (s) with their initials

·                    the full title of the book/essay/journal which you have consulted

·                    the publishers name as well as place and date of publication



Final Points


·        Under the Harvard System, the Bibliography is always set out in alphabetical order by author.


·        Consistency is a very important aspect of referencing.  You must use exactly the same format (layout, type-face and even down to punctuation) throughout the body of your work and in compiling the Bibliography at the end.



For further information on referencing (such as referencing websites and electronic sources) please consult the following library web-page (and look after Harvey the cat!):































Appendix 3

CAF assessment regulations and submission dates



All written items of assessment (assignments) should be handed in to the Student Assessment Office in the Student Centre, by the specified deadline.



Extensions are given at the discretion of tutors and evidence of genuine hardship is likely to be required. Extensions must be requested at least two days before the assessment deadline and can only be given for a maximum of two weeks.


Late submission

Assessments submitted after the deadline, where an extension has NOT been agreed, are subject to the following penalties:

Submitted within one week of the deadline – the maximum grade is ‘capped’ at D-

Submitted later than one week after the deadline – ‘referred’ (see below) and graded G.


Referral and Deferral

An item of assessment is said to be ‘referred’ (i.e. failed) when:

a grade of F+ or below is awarded at the first attempt;

the assignment is submitted more than one week after the deadline, and no extension has been given (G grade);

the assignment is not submitted at all (G grade).


Students have the right to re-submit the referred item of assessment for a second attempt. The maximum grade for this second attempt is ‘capped’ at the lowest passing grade (D-). No third attempt is permitted.


‘Deferred’ assessments are those where a student is permitted to submit an item of assessment for the module at a later date, without penalty. In these circumstances, the grade is not ‘capped’. If the deferred item of assessment is awarded a grade of F+ or worse, it then becomes a referred item (see above). No third attempt is permitted. Note that deferral comes into play only where an extension of two weeks is insufficient to resolve the problem, and it applies only to exceptional cases. If you have long-term problem with your studies, you must advise your tutors and the CAF Office as soon as possible. You should also be aware of the Mitigating Circumstances procedure, which does not operate retrospectively.