University of Northampton



Power and Vision











Monday 9 - 11am in Senate SN 306

Lecturer Contact Details


Dr Glyn Daly, Module Co-ordinator, Fawsley 32, 01604-892545,


Graham McBeath, Module Tutor, Fawsley 4, 01604-892481


Tutors do not have 'offices' at Waterside so n the first instance please email us to arrange to see us or ask us for nay information in connection with this modules.



Teaching Arrangements:

The module is taught over 24 weeks, two hours per week, and is timetabled as follows:


Session activities provide you with the basic outlines of particular issues and debates within the field, and to draw your attention to questions and issues which you will explore in discussions, reading groups and in self-guided research outside class.  Discussions in seminars should be student led, with the tutor acting mainly as a facilitator.


Your success will depend largely on how much reading and research you do around the subject.  You should therefore allow around two to three hours per week for self-directed study in addition to the two hours per week in class for this module.  In order to become an efficient researcher, it is important that you familiarise yourself with the services and facilities offered by the library, especially the availability of electronic and on-line sources as well as the short loan section.


Tutorials may be arranged with Tutors via email


Attendance:If you are found to be ‘in neglect of your academic obligations ‘ (non-attendance, non-submission of coursework), you may have your right to re-sit failed assessments withdrawn, or in extreme cases be asked to leave the course.  Copies of 'cause for concern' records will be kept on your student file, which in turn will be used by all tutors you nominate as referees when applying for jobs during and after your time at UoN.





The module is broken down into two strands: theoretical and conceptual in the first instance and political vision and ideologies in the second.  The first strand begins with the analysis of the concept of power and examines a range of theoretical perspectives that seek to elaborate it. On this basis, the module explores the ways in which underlying assumptions about power influence interpretations of the state, the nature of democracy and such notions as ‘legitimacy’, ‘authority’, ‘equality’, ‘liberty’ and so on. In the second strand of the module the theory of ideology is examined and the variety of modern political ideologies is introduced and evaluated. Each tradition will be analyzed in terms of historical development and their characteristic attempts to challenge and transform power relations in respect of an alternative political vision as to how society should be organized.



Session Topics:  Autumn Term


Week 1 (01/10/18)                Introduction [GD/GMcB]

Week 2 (
08/10/18)                Politics – what is it? [GMcB]

                                                Heywood Politics - Ch.1 & Ch. 13

                                                Heywood Political Ideas and Concepts – Introduction

                                                Barry Introduction to Political Ideas and Concepts – Intro.

Week 3 (
15/10/18)                Power [GD]

Heywood Politics - Ch.1
Lukes Power: A Radical View
Lukes Power:
Readings in Social and Political Theory - Introduction

Week 4 (22/10/18)                State [GD]

Dunleavy Theories of the State – Relevant Chapters

                                                Heywood PoliticsCh. 5


Week 5 (29/10/18)                Sovereignty [GD]

                                                Heywood, Chp. 3


Week 6 (05/11/18)               Freedom and Rights [GMcB]

Week 7 (12/11/18)                Skills/Tutorial Week



Week 8 (19/11/18)                Security [GD]

                                                Heywood, Chp. 18


Week 10 (03/12/18)             Democracy [GD]

Heywood, Politics - Chps.4, 5 & 19
Heywood, Political Ideas and Concepts - Ch.7

                                                Held, Models of Democracy – Relevant Chapters

Heywood, A. (2004), Political Theory - Chapter 8: ‘Democracy , Representation and the Public Interest’

                                                Tansey, S. (2004) Politics: The Basics, Part 7: ‘Democracy’

                                                Gellner  Nations and Nationalism

                                                Kamenka  Nationalism

Kedourie Nationalism

                                                Kohn, H. The Idea of Nationalism



Week 9 (26/11/18)                People & Populism [GMcB]

                                                Canovan, M. (1981) Populism                    



Week 11 (10/12/18)             Preparation for Essay 1: advice and planning.


Session Topics: Spring Term



Week 13 (07/01/19)             Ideology [GMcB]

                                                Larrain, J. (1979), Concept of Ideology

                                                Seliger, M. (1974), Ideology and Politics

Althusser, L. (1969), ‘Ideology and ideological State Apparatuses’ (difficult but a classic - see the collection of essays by Althusser, For Marx, 1974.)



Week 14 (14/01/19)             Liberalism [GMcB]

                                                Eccleshall 'Liberalism'; ch.2 by Eccleshall

                                                Bellamy  Liberalism and Modern Society

                                               Gray  Liberalism

Eccleshall, V. Geoghegan, V. Lloyd, M. Mackenzie, I. and Wilford, R. (2003) Political Ideologies: An Introduction (London: Routledge). Chapter 2: “Liberalism”

Heywood, A. (2003) Political Ideologies: An Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan). Chapter 2: “Liberalism”

Leach, R.  (2002) Political Ideology in Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan


Week 15 (21/01/19)             Feminism [GMcB]

                                                Eccleshall 'Feminism'; ch.9 by Wilford

                                                Bryson  Feminist Political Theory

                                                Coole  Women in Political Theory

                                                Tong Feminist Thought


Week 16 (29/01/19)            Conservatism [GMcB]

                                                Eccleshall 'Conservatism'; ch.3 by Eccleshall

                                                Gamble The Free Economy and the Strong State

                                                                Hondereich Conservatism

                                                Scruton The Meaning of Conservatism

Eccleshall, V. Geoghegan, V. Lloyd, M. Mackenzie, I. and Wilford, R. (2003) Political Ideologies: An Introduction (London: Routledge). Chapter 3: “Conservatism”

Heywood, A. (2003) Political Ideologies: An Introduction (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan). Chapter 3: “Conservatism”

Leach, R.  (2002) Political Ideology in Britain (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan). Chapter 3: “Conservatism”

Honderich, T. (1990) Conservatism (London: Penguin



Week 17 (04/02/19)             Anarchism [GMcB]

                                                Eccleshall 'Anarchism'; ch.7 by Heywood


Week 18 (11/02/19)             Marxism & Socialism (GD)

                                                Bottomore et al A Dictionary of Marxist Thought

                                                Lichtheim  Marxism

                                                McLellan The Thought of Karl Marx

                                                McLellan  Marxism after Marx

                                                Eccleshall 'Socialism'; ch.4 by Geoghegan

                                                Crick. Socialism

                                                Lichtheim A Short History of Socialism

                                                Wright  Socialisms


Week 19 (18/02/19)             Skills/Tutorial Week



Week 20 (25/02/19)             Fascism [GD]

                                                Andrew Heywood (2012), Political Ideologies, Ch 7

                                                Roger Griffin (1993), The Nature of Fascism.

                                    Martin Kitchen, Fascism,

                                                Kevin Passmore (2014) Fascism: A Very Short Introduction

                                                Walter Laqueur and Roger Griffin (2006), Fascism Past and

                                                Present, West and East



Week 21 (04/03/19)             Nationalism (GD)

                                                Heywood, Chp. 5 & Chp. 19                                   

                                                Eccleshall 'Nationalism' chapter

                                                Gellner  Nations and Nationalism

                                                Kamenka  Nationalism

                                                Kedourie Nationalism

                                                Anderson, Imagined Communities



Week 22 (18/03/19)             Utopias (GMcB)

                                                Goodwin/Taylor, (1982) Politics of Utopia

F. & F. Manuel, (1979) Utopia in Western Political Thought



Week 23 (18/03/19)             Ideology Today (GD)



Week 24 (25/03/19)             Essay Tutorial Week




Indicative Reading


The main course texts are:


Heywood, A. (2013), Politics, London: Palgrave. There is also a companion website for this book at


Eccleshall, R. et al (1994), Political Ideologies London: Routledge.


 This book is also very useful: Hoffman, J. (2008), Introduction to Political Theory.



There are a number of useful texts in the library which should be used as background reading for lectures, seminars, assignments and, of course, the end-of-year examination.


These include:


Adams, I. (1993), Political Ideology Today, Manchester: Manchester Uni. Press.

Anderson, B. (1991), Imagined Communities, London: Verso.

Beetham, D. and K. Boyle (1995), Introducing Democracy, London: Polity.

Bellamy, R. (1992), Liberalism and Modern Society, Oxford: Polity Press.

Bellamy, R. (ed.) (1993) Theories and Concepts of Politics, Manchester:

 Manchester University Press.

Bottomore, T. (1983) A Dictionary of Marxist Thought, Oxford: Blackwell.

Bryson, V. (1992) Feminist Political Theory, London: MacMillan.

Cheles, L. (ed.) (1991) Neo-Fascism in Europe, London: Longman.

Coole, D. H. (1993) Women in Political Theory, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester


Crick, B. (1987) Socialism, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

Dobson, A. (1995) Green Political Thought, London: Routledge.

Eatwell, R. and A. Wright (eds.) (2000) Contemporary Political Ideologies, London:


Eccleshall, R. et al (eds.) (1994), Political Ideologies, London: Routledge.

Eckersley, R. (1992) Environmentalism and Political Theory, London: UCL Press.

Fukuyama, F. (1992) The End of History and the Last Man, Harmondsworth:


Gellner, E. (1983) Nations and Nationalism, Oxford: Blackwell.

Goodin, R. E. (1992) Green Political Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University


Gray, J. (1991) Liberalisms, London: Routledge.

Griffin, R. (1993) The Nature of Fascism, London: Routledge.

Pettitr, P.& Goodin, R. (1997), Contemporary Political Philosophy,  Blackwell.

Held, D. (1996) Models of Democracy, Oxford: Polity.

Held, D. (ed.) (1993) Prospects for Democracy, Cambridge: Polity.

Held, D. (ed.) (1991) Political Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity.

Heywood, A. (2004) Political Theory, London: Palgrave.

Heywood, A. (2003) Political Ideologies: An Introduction, London: Palgrave.

Hoffman, J. (1995)  Beyond the State, Cambridge: Polity.

Hoffman, J. (2006), Introduction to Political Ideologies, Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Hoffman, J. (2006), Introduction to Political Concepts, Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Honderich, T. (1991) Conservatism, London: Penguin.

Illich, I (1996) De-Schooling Society, London: Marion Boyars.

Kamenka, E. (1976) Nationalism, London: Edward Arnold.

Kedourie, E. (1993) Nationalism, Oxford: Blackwell.

Kitchen, M. (1976) Fascism, London: MacMillan.

Laqueur, W. and R. Griffin (2006), Fascism Past and Present, West and East,

Larrain, J. (1979) The Concept of Ideology, London: Hutchinson.

Leach, R. (1991) British Political Ideologies, London: Philip Allan.

Lent, A. (1998) New Political Thought, London: Lawrence and Wishart.

Lictheim, G. (1975) A Short History of Socialism, London: Fontana.

Lukes, S. (1974) Power: A Radical View, London: MacMillan.

Lukes, S. (1986) Power: Readings in Social and Political Theory,  Blackwell.

Marshall, P. (2007) Demanding the Impossible, London: Harper Collins.

McLellan, D. (1983), Marxism after Marx, London: MacMillan.

McLennan, G. et al (eds.) (1984) The Idea of the Modern State, Open University Press.

Mouffe, C. (ed.) (1992) Dimensions of Radical Democracy, London: Verso.

Nozick, R. (1974), Anarchy, State and Utopia

O’Sullivan, N (1983), Fascism, London: Dent.

Passmore, K. (2014) Fascism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: OUP.

Phillips, A. (1991) Engendering Democracy, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Plant, R. (1991) Modern Political Thought, Oxford: Blackwell.

Rose, N. (1999) Powers of Freedom, Cambridge University Press.
Schwarzmantel, J. (1994) The State in Modern Society, Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Scott, J. (ed.) (1993) Power: Critical Concepts, London: Routledge.

Scruton, R. (1984) The Meaning of Conservatism, London: MacMillan.

Therborn, G. (1980) The Ideology of Power and the Power of Ideology, Verso.

Tong, R. (1989) Feminist Thought, London: Unwin.

Vincent, A. (1992) Modern Political Ideologies, Oxford: Blackwell.

Wright, T. (1996) Socialisms: Old and New, London: Routledge.



Politics Review


Political Studies

Political Theory

The Political Quarterly

Political Science Quarterly

Politics and Society

The British Journal of Politics and International Relations



Internet Resources


The Library’s search system, NELSON (Northampton ELectronic Search ONline) is a very useful starting point for conducting online research:

The faculty support team in the library also runs some very helpful sessions on how to identify and use 'good' web-based sources to best effect in your research.


For those already familiar with the basics of internet use, the library's learning resources homepage holds a number of subject specific resources :


The faculty support team in the library also runs some very helpful sessions on how to identify and use 'good' web-based sources to best effect in your research.


Useful sites for this module are:





You must complete and submit both items of coursework.


For written assessment items students will be expected to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the basic concepts and ideas in political theory. They will be expected to do so in the form of clear and reasoned argument and critical analysis should be in evidence. The ability to construct a sustained evaluation of the theoretical foundations of political debates will be central to the assessment criteria as will the ability to express these ideas in a succinct and lucid fashion. Students will be expected to demonstrate wide reading and appropriate skills of referencing and acknowledgement of sources.


Submission Process:The short assignment and the essay must be word-processed and submitted in electronic form through ‘Turnitin’ – you can find this through the ‘submit your work’ button on the Nile website for this module.



Submission Dates


2000 word Essay Assignment: (50%)        9th January 2019 (up to midnight)

2000 word Essay Assignment  (50%)        12th April 2019 (up to midnight)


The module team aims to return your graded assignments within three working weeks.


Initial and referral assessment deadlines

Assessment Item


Referral / Deferral  deadline

1. Essay 1

9th January 2019

Wednesday 6th Feb. 2019

2. Essay  2

12th April 2019

Friday 10th May 2019



Alternative (referral and deferral) assessments:

If you have to resit assessed work for this module, the submission dates for it is above in the table.


If you have a resit, you choose essay title(s) different from the one(s)  you did at your first attempt.




Assignment One (50%):  Essay (2000 words)


Assignment Two (50%)  Essay: (2000 Word )



Choose each of your essays from of the following titles:


1) Is politics more of an art or more of a science? Explain and illustrate your answer.


2) What is power and how is it exercised?


3) Critically assess the pluralist and Marxist views of the state.


4) ‘Globalization effectively means the end of national sovereignty’. Discuss.


5) ‘The nation is an outdated concept in contemporary politics.' Discuss.


6) Is Security is more important than freedom?


7) What are the similarities and differences between classical and modern democracies?


8)  Does the State emerge and persist, to tame the brutality of human nature?


9) Do only individuals have rights, or can there and ought there to be group rights?


10)  Does Freedom of speech and opinion trump the claims of Identity politics?


11) ‘Democracy is the worst possible system, apart from all the others’. Discuss.


12) What do you understand by the term ideology? Explain and illustrate your answer.


13) To what extent can conservatives be advocates of the free-market?


14) Compare and contrast the left and right wing versions of populism.


15) To what extent is nationalism the most potent force in contemporary politics?


16) Explain and explore the different forms of fascism.


17) Compare and contrast socialism and communism.


18) Explain and explore a Marxist view of modern democracy.


19) Compare and contrast variants of left and right wing versions of feminism.


20) ‘Utopian thought is a necessary condition of politics’. Discuss.


21) Should reason count for more than feelings in politics?


22) Should the politically illiterate have a vote?


Essay assignment guidelines


   The essay assignment should be 2000 words in length.


   Choose a question that interests you, and spend some time ‘unpacking’ the question or quotation that you are going to address in the essay.


   You should consult at least three or four relevant sources in preparing your assignment and these should be listed in your bibliography.  Use a range of academic sources and do not rely solely on internet resources.


   In writing your essay try and develop a clear line of argument in response to the question set.  Your essay should come with a brief introduction outlining the argument you are going to take, and some concluding comments summarising your position. It is important to develop an analytical rather than a merely descriptive approach to the topic under review.


   Use relevant evidence and examples to support your arguments.


   Make sure your sources are properly referenced in the text.  Quotations should be attributed and ideas used in the text should be referenced in a clear and consistent fashion.  Students are advised to use the Harvard system of referencing (Appendix 4).


   Avoid plagiarism like the plague! There are serious penalties for plagiarism – the copying or close paraphrasing of published or unpublished work – which is regarded as a serious breach of academic standards by the University (see Appendix 5).


   Your essay should be typed or word-processed, double spaced, printed in font of readable size and with margins for comments on both sides.




Assignment Drafts: We are happy to look at any draught assignments and to offer comment. However, we will only look at submitted draught work once, not multiple times.



Marking Procedures for Written Work


All written work is moderated internally and may later be submitted to an external examiner.  After the first marker has looked at your essay and assigned it a provisional grade, s/he will then pass it on to a second member of the module team for moderation (to ensure that the essay has been marked accurately and fairly). After both markers have agreed on a grade for your essay, you will be able to collect the essay from the first marker, who will also give you feedback and explain the comments s/he made on your work. We endeavour to have written assignments turned around and returned to you within four working weeks from the deadline. Each year, samples of coursework are sent to an external examiner to ensure that our marking standards are comparable to those of other Higher Education Institutions. The external may suggest that a particular mark be moved upwards or downwards. Please note that all marks are provisional until confirmed by the exam board at the end of the academic year.


Details of the grading system and criteria for written assignments can be found in Appendix 2.


Problems Affecting Study

If a problem arises which may affect your studies, you are encouraged to discuss this in the first instance with one of the module tutors, or if the problem is likely to affect more than one module, with your personal tutor. Alternatively, if you do not wish to discuss the problem with a member of the teaching staff, you might contact the Dean of Students, or the Student Support Team. If you are experiencing medical or other personal problems that may prevent you from submitting an assignment on time, you should request a Mitigating Circumstances Form, available from the Frameworks Office:


For support with study skills, you are strongly encouraged to visit the University’s

Skills Hub: and to make use of the very useful

services and facilities available in the Centre for Achievement and Performance


Student Feedback


The course team believes in the importance of student feedback as a means of ensuring and improving quality of provision. We invite you to make your views known or raise issues through the following formal channels:


Student Representatives: their role is raise any issues affecting the experience of students on a particular course with the module co-ordinator(s) concerned or, where that seems more appropriate, with the relevant subject course leader. They also represent students at the subject board of study which meets termly and is the formal forum in which issues relating to the subject are discussed. Elected student representatives are invited to attend training sessions on their role. It is up to the student body to brief their representatives on any issues they ought to raise with tutors or at the board of studies.


Feedback Sessions: at the end of the autumn term, one seminar session will be set aside for students to discuss the module amongst themselves and with the module tutors.  Students will be asked to produce a brief written summary of their discussions and any suggestions for future improvements.


Feedback Questionnaire: a Module Evaluation Questionnaire is included at the end of this module guide.  The questionnaire is completed and submitted at the end of the spring term. In the questionnaire, you will be asked to comment on the quality of the teaching. You will also be invited to make constructive suggestions as to how the quality of provision could be improved. The questionnaires will be collated and analysed by the module team, who will present their analysis and response to the issues raised for discussion at the relevant subject boards.  A summary of the feedback and the module team response will be posted on the module noticeboard and included in the end-of-year Module Review.


Individual feedback: above and beyond these formal feedback mechanisms, you are encouraged to approach your module tutors and lecturers directly with any questions or concerns relating to the module (or particular aspects of it). This is a good way of giving feedback to us privately and allows us to respond directly to your concerns. Alternatively, if you do not wish to approach your module tutors or lecturers directly, you can communicate any concerns you have to your personal tutor.





1)      IRD1026 Module Specifications

2)      The CAF Assessment Grades

3)      Guidelines for the ‘Harvard’ system of referencing

4)      CAF Assessment regulations

5)      UoN’s statement on Plagiarism

6)      Feedback Questionnaire




This document forms the definitive overview as to the nature and scope of this module and is used in the University’s quality assurance processes.


The information in this document cannot be changed without approval (except for the Indicative Content).


A glossary of key terms is available.




Business & Law


International Relations & Politics


Economics, International Relations & Development


Power and Vision: Introduction to Politics









Glyn Daly









This module has supplementary regulations:           No



The purpose of this module is to introduce students to some of the key theoretical and conceptual approaches to politics and the organization and interaction of power relations at the levels of the local, the national and the global. In addition, it explores a range of ideological perspectives and their attempts to engage with, and otherwise transform, power relations in the name of alternative political visions of the social order.





·         The nature of Politics

·         Power

·         State

·         Sovereignty

·         Security

·         Democracy

·         Nationhood

·         Ideologies

·         Utopia






Module Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of the module, with detailed guidance students will be able to:


Subject-Specific Knowledge, Understanding & Application

a) identify different aspects of the notion of power and the way in which it functions in national and international contexts


b) explain the interdependency between the theoretical understanding and empirical application in the real world of politics   


c) compare and contrast the different ways in which different ideologies approach questions of power, political priority and the role of the state


Employability & Changemaker Skills

d)       apply knowledge acquired from the module to concrete political issues and propose potential solutions




Learning and teaching information for this module when delivered off-site by UN partners is available from the partner institution’s NILE site (or equivalent). Any variation in study hours must be approved by the University of Northampton before students are enrolled, ensuring that study hours provision is always appropriate to support student achievement of the module learning outcomes.


Learning, Teaching and Assessment activities

Study hours



Contact hours: (total)

Comprising face-to-face and online contact hours as follows:





-         Face-to-face (total) – this may include the following:


-         Face to face interactive small group session (generic space in groups of approx. 30 e.g. seminars/workshops/tutorials)

-         Other - assignment tutorials









·         Online contact hours (total)
(comprising online activities with mediated tutor input)




Guided independent study hours
(including hours for assessment preparation)




Module Total







Assessment Activity

Learning Outcomes

Weighting (%)


Assessment Type

Assessment Deliverables





2000-word essay

a, b




2000-word essay

c, d





The assessment items listed above are graded and contribute to the overall module grade (assessment of learning). In addition, there are opportunities for formative assessment (assessment for learning), which are ungraded, to support students in achieving the module learning outcomes. These are NOT listed.


Date of approval:   August 2018





Appendix 2


The Common Academic Framework Assessment Grades


All assessed work for all modules will be given a grade. These grades are awarded according to the following general criteria. Your course and module guides will contain more specific information on how these criteria are applied in particular pieces of work in particular subject areas.


A+       An exceptional first.  Work which fulfils all the criteria of the A grade, but at an  exceptional standard for the level concerned.


A         A good first.  Work of distinguished quality which is based on extensive research and/or strong technical and creative competence. An authoritative grasp of concepts, methodology and content appropriate to the subject/discipline and to the assessment task will be demonstrated. There is clear evidence of originality and insight and an ability to sustain an argument and/or solve discipline-related problems, based on critical analysis and/or evaluation. The ability to synthesise material effectively and the potential for skilled innovation in thinking and practice will be evident. Capability in relation to relevant key skills for the assessment task will also be strongly evidenced.


A-        A first.  Work of very good quality which displays most, but not all of the A grade characteristics for the level concerned.


B+       A high upper second.  Work which clearly fulfils all the criteria of the B grade for the level concerned, but shows greater insight and/or originality.


B         A good upper second.  Work of good quality which is based on a wide range of properly referenced sources and/or creative input, demonstrating a sound and above average level of understanding of concepts, methodology and content appropriate to the subject/discipline and to the assessment task. There is clear evidence of critical judgement in selecting, ordering and analysing content to construct a sound argument based on responses which reveal occasional insight and/or originality. Ability to solve discipline-related problems will be effectively and consistently demonstrated, with relevant key skills capability well developed and evidenced.


B-        An upper second.  Work of good quality which contains most, but not all of the B grade characteristics for the level concerned.


C+       A high lower second.  Work which clearly fulfils all the criteria of the C grade for the level concerned, but shows a greater degree of critical analysis and/or insight.


C         A good lower second.  Work of sound quality which is based on satisfactorily referenced sources and/or creative input and which demonstrates a grasp of relevant material and key concepts, together with ability to structure and organise arguments or materials effectively. The work may be rather standard, but will be mostly accurate, clearly communicated and provide some evidence of ability to engage in critical analysis and/or evaluation. There will be no serious omissions or irrelevancies and there will be evidence of generally sound capability in key skills relevant to the task. In dealing with solutions to technical problems, appropriate methods will be chosen.


C-        A lower second.  Work of sound quality which contains most, but not all of the C grade characteristics for the level concerned.


D+       A high third.  Work of a satisfactory standard demonstrating a reasonable level of understanding, but lacking sufficient analysis and independence to warrant a C grade at the level concerned.


D         A good third.  Work of satisfactory quality which covers the basic subject matter adequately and is appropriately organised and presented, but which is primarily descriptive or derivative rather than analytical or creative. There may be some misunderstanding of key concepts and limitations in the ability to select relevant material or techniques, and/or in communication or other relevant key skills, so that the work may be flawed by some errors, omissions or irrelevancies. There will be some evidence of appropriate research and ability to construct an argument, but it may be narrowly focused. In dealing with solutions to technical problems, established and appropriate methods will generally be chosen, but these may be applied uncritically.


D-        A third.  Work of bare pass standard demonstrating some familiarity with relevant subject matter and application of relevant academic capabilities, but only just meeting threshold standards in, e.g., research, analysis, organisation, focus or other key general or subject specific skills essential to the assessment task, and/or with significant errors or omissions.


F+       A marginal fail.  Work which indicates evidence of engagement with the subject material and learning process, but which is, e.g., essentially misinterpreted, misdirected,misunderstood or poorly organised and sketchy or otherwise just failing to meet threshold standards at the level concerned..


F         A fail.  Work that falls well short of the threshold standards at the level concerned.  It may address the task to some extent, or include evidence of successful engagement with some of the subject material, but such satisfactory ingredients will be clearly outweighed by major deficiencies across remaining areas.


F-        A comprehensive fail.  Work of poor quality which is based on only minimal understanding, application or effort.  It will offer only very limited evidence of familiarity with subject material or skills appropriate to the discipline or task and/or demonstrates inadequate capability in key general skills essential to the assessment task at the level concerned.


G         Nothing presented, or work containing nothing of merit.



Appendix 3: How to reference


Students are required to use the ‘Harvard system’ of referencing


The ‘Harvard’ system uses brackets in the text and is one of the easiest referencing systems to use.  It is also widely employed in academic publications, both journals and books. The list of references at the end of the essay should be arranged alphabetically in the form of a BIBLIOGRAPHY. The alphabetical list should include all the references that have been used (books, articles, websites, reports, government publications, theses, etc.). The references in the alphabetical list should contain the name of the author, the date of publication, the title of publication, the place of publication and the publisher, set out as follows:



for books:

Heywood, A. (2012), Politics, London: MacMillan.


for articles:

Marx, K. (2014), ‘The Rise and Fall of the Bourgeoisie’, New Left Review, 4

  (September/October), pp. 49-68.


for chapters in edited volumes:

Putin, V. (1997), ‘If I Ruled the World’ in Burke, A. and Hare, J. (1997), The Body Politic, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 91-111.


for government reports or other publications where there is no author’s name:

World Bank (2001), World Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press. 


for newspaper articles:

Campbell, D. (1991) 'The British Nuclear Industry', The Guardian, 22nd October, p.5.


for internet sources you should include, where possible, the author or organisation, year of publication, title and web address. Finally, you need to include the date that you consulted the internet:

Heywood, A. (2013), Politics, (consulted on 14th July 2014)



The references in the text of your assignment should always refer to the sources listed in your Bibliography.  Following the Harvard system, this is done by placing the author’s surname and date of publication in brackets at the relevant point in the text: for example, (Eccleshall, 1994).   When quoting directly from a source you should also include the relevant page number(s): for example, (Eatwell and Wright, 2000: 272).






Footnotes may be used in conjunction with the Harvard system when you have a piece of information to give but it is inconvenient to break up the text to give it. Traditionally footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page in a smaller font: most word-processing packages will create them for you. Alternatively, you may put all ‘notes’ at the end and signal them in the text by a superscript or number in brackets.



Primary referencing: You should cite the source, including page number (s) of a work that has provided you with detailed information such as: -


§         factual material

§         statistical data

§         technical data


OR when a work has strongly influenced your thinking, as in: -


§         a line of inquiry

§         a line of analysis

§         an interpretation of material



When using the Harvard system you should give the author’s name and the date of publication.  Depending on the particular sentence construction you adopt, this information might appear as: -


·                    ‘Smith in 1995 carried out a study of class and suggested…’

·                    ‘Smith (1995) in a study of class points out….’

·                    ‘A study measuring class (Smith, 1995) found….’

·                    ‘In a recent study Smith (1995) argued that …’

·                    ‘In a recent study (Smith, 1995) it was argued that …’



If you need to be more exact about where you derived your information – if, for example, you quote directly from a book – you should note the page numbers as well:  (Smith, 1996: 112)


For publications by two authors, both are given: -


·                    (Smith and Jones, 1996: 78)


The convention where more than two authors are involved is to use ‘et al’: -


·                    (Smith et al, 1995: 105)


If your source is an extract or chapter taken from either a collection of readings or a book with a number of different contributors published as an edited collection, you need to make clear only the immediate source of the reference:-


·                    (Smith, 1995)


You are citing Smith as the author of the article not the editor of the book.




Secondary Referencing


There will also be occasions when you will refer to a book or piece of information that you have not read at first hand, but which has been commented on or referred to by another author.  This situation is particularly common where you are using a general text of some kind.  This is called secondary referencing and it is important that you signal clearly that you have not read the original text but have relied on the author you have read to give a fair reflection of the original work.


In these cases you must show the author of the primary text as well as the author and date of the secondary text you have used.  This is done by giving the name of the primary text followed by “cited in” followed by the name and date of the secondary reference.  You will need to refer to the bibliography of the secondary text to obtain the detail you need.


The format here would be: -


·        (Smith, cited in Marsh 1997: 26)

·        (Smith, cited in Marsh et al (eds) 1997: 26)




If you are actually quoting from a publication rather than discussing/describing it in your own words, then after the quote (which should always be in single quotation marks) you should give the author (s), date and the page number from the text. For example:


As Marx and Engels put it, ‘all history is the history of the class struggle’ (Marx & Engels, 2014: 14).


If the quote is longer it needs to be set out below your narrative and indented. This indentation clearly separates the words of the author from the words of the person being quoted. For example:


What defines the modern economy is the emergence of a dynamic system based on a characteristic relational configuration:

‘Thus capital presupposes wage labour; wage labour presupposes capital. They reciprocally condition the existence of each other; they reciprocally bring forth each other’ (Marx, 2014: 209-210).




Bibliography at the end of an essay/assignment


The purpose of the information given in the text is to refer the reader to your list of references at the end of the essay where s/he will be able to find: -


·        the full name of the author (s) or editor (s) with their initials

·        the full title of the book/essay/journal which you have consulted

·        the publishers name as well as place and date of publication



Final Points


·        Under the Harvard System, the Bibliography is always set out in alphabetical order by author.


·        Consistency is a very important aspect of referencing.  You must use exactly the same format (layout, type-face and even down to punctuation) throughout the body of your work and in compiling the Bibliography at the end.



For further information on referencing (such as referencing websites and electronic sources) please consult the following library web-page (and look after Harvey the cat!):

Appendix 4

CAF assessment regulations




All written items of assessment (assignments) should be handed in to the Student Assessment Office in the Student Centre, by the specified deadline.



Extensions are given at the discretion of tutors and evidence of genuine hardship is likely to be required. Extensions must be requested at least two days before the assessment deadline and can only be given for a maximum of two weeks.


Late submission

Assessments submitted after the deadline, where an extension has NOT been agreed, are subject to the following penalties:

Submitted within one week of the deadline – the maximum grade is ‘capped’ at D-

Submitted later than one week after the deadline – ‘referred’ (see below) and graded G.



Referral and Deferral

An item of assessment is said to be ‘referred’ (i.e. failed) when:

a grade of F+ or below is awarded at the first attempt;

the assignment is submitted more than one week after the deadline, and no extension has been given (G grade);

the assignment is not submitted at all (G grade).


Students have the right to re-submit the referred item of assessment for a second attempt. The maximum grade for this second attempt is ‘capped’ at the lowest passing grade (D-). No third attempt is permitted.


‘Deferred’ assessments are those where a student is permitted to submit an item of assessment for the module at a later date, without penalty. In these circumstances, the grade is not ‘capped’. If the deferred item of assessment is awarded a grade of F+ or worse, it then becomes a referred item (see above). No third attempt is permitted. Note that deferral comes into play only where an extension of two weeks is insufficient to resolve the problem, and it applies only to exceptional cases. If you have long-term problem with your studies, you must advise your tutors and the CAF Office as soon as possible. You should also be aware of the Mitigating Circumstances procedure, which does not operate retrospectively.




The University College unequivocally condemns plagiarism, which it considers to be

comparable to falsifying data and cheating in an examination, and warns students that the Senate looks gravely upon incidences of plagiarism and is empowered to recommend severe penalties where students are found guilty of plagiarism. (See Academic Misconduct)


Definition:The University considers plagiarism involves an intention to deceive and entails the submission for assessment of work which purports to be that of the student but is in fact wholly or substantially the work of another. Plagiarism is understood as `passing off someone else’s work as your own for academic benefit.’ Since it is difficult to establish such an intention to deceive except through practice the University defines plagiarism in the following way:


Plagiarism involves the incorporation by a student in an assessment, material which is not their own in the sense that all or a substantial part of the work has been copied without any attempt at attribution or has been incorporated as if it is the student’s own work when it is wholly or substantially the work of another person.