methodological

Approach.

studies:

concrete examples

theoretical explanation

terms of explanation

 

Content Analysis

The regularity and (usually) quantitative distribution of textual and graphical features in a media text

Bad News and most other products from the Glasgow Media Group.

 

Most `sex and violence in the media’ research

Can tend towards cruder forms of positivism.

 

Links to semiotics if doing a qualitative content analysis

Quantitative

Frequency counts

Statistics

Unit of analysis

 

Signs

Meaning

syntagm

 

Political Economy

Media Power

a)Economic

b) Political

c) social

d) cultural

and linkages between:

Media Corporations

Government

M(ergers)&Acquisitions

Media Policy

BBC/PSB

 

Murdoch’s relation with Thatcher Govt. gains The Times.

 

German/UK/Swiss etc. govts. sell off permissions for 3G telecomms

Marxist/neo-marxist

 

 

OR

 

Liberal/neo-liberal

Hegemony

Ownership/control

Capitalism

Ideology

 

 

Free market

Efficiency

De-regulation

Freedom of choice

 

Cultural/

Ethnographic – the how was it for you?/subjective experience account.

The interaction of values, perceptions, experiences, and practices in the production and consumption of the media.

Organisational culture of the BBC, see Tom Burns study: The BBC

 

Watching TV/family interaction, see David Morley’s Nationwide Audience.

No dominant paradigm but can tend towards structuralism, such  as emphasis upon routines within structures eg. family

 

 

Patterns of interaction.

Roles.

Understanding.

 

Discourse Analysis

The use of everyday forms of written or spoken language which embed native cultural practices, beliefs, ideologies, and values.

Use of positive words to gain approval

 

Use of sexist images/ language in the press.

 

Transformations from `I did it’ to `It happened’ see Kress and Hodge Language as Ideology.

Its theoretical form turns on what aspects of society you want to identify. Can be linked to Critical Theory via its analysis of language as a medium of ideology.

 

 

Syntax

Semantics

Critical linguistics

Scripts/Routines

Active/passive

Illocution.

 

Psychological Research

Impacts upon and responses by persons by/to media stimuli;

 

Psychological constitution of self in relation to media and communicative process.

Most violence research, eg. Himmelweit (1958)

Belson (1965) and many others

 

Maletzke (1963) social-psychological model of communication.

Dominant paradigm of psych research has been the uses and gratification approach

 

Can be linked to marxist or liberal individualist notions

Dispositions

Inner states

Effects

Affects

Emotions

 

Personality

Influence

Social sphere

Table of different formal research methods in media studies.